Lactase persistence

(PDF) Lactase Non-persistence and Lactose Intolerance

Lactase persistence - Wikipedi

Lactase persistence is the continued activity of the lactase enzyme in adulthood. Since lactase's only function is the digestion of lactose in milk, in most mammal species, the activity of the enzyme is dramatically reduced after weaning Lactase Persistence Lactase persistence is one of the most notable examples of genetic adaptation, with a polymorphism promoting the expression of LCT, the gene encoding the enzyme lactase, being at high frequency in European populations and mostly absent elsewhere. From: Current Opinion in Immunology, 201 Lactase persistence, the ability of some human adults to continue to produce the lactase enzyme and digest lactose, is an example of genetic change leading to recent human evolution. Students explore the evidence that demonstrates how mutations leading to lactase persistence have.. This dominantly inherited genetic trait is known as lactase persistence. The distribution of these different lactase phenotypes in human populations is highly variable and is controlled by a polymorphic element cis-acting to the lactase gene The lactase-persistence hot spots are Europe, parts of Africa, the Middle East, and South Asia. That is where you would expect people began the cultural practice of dairying. 3. Provide a scenario to explain how different global hot spots of lactase persistence could be caused by the same mutation

Lactase Persistence - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

  1. While the phenotypic change under selection, lactase persistence (LP), is known, the evolutionary advantage conferred to persistent individuals remains obscure. One informative but underappreciated observation is that not all populations whose ancestors had access to milk genetically adapted to become lactase persistent
  2. Lactase persistence, the ability to drink milk as an adult and the opposite of lactose intolerance, is a trait that arose in humans as a direct result of our domestication of other mammals. Lactose is the main carbohydrate (disaccharide sugar) in animal milk, including humans, cows, sheep, camels, horses, and dogs
  3. This presence/absence is a genetic polymorphism commonly called lactase persistence/nonpersistence, depending on whether or not lactase activity persists from childhood into adulthood. 1 In..
  4. ant Mendelian trait that has been a subject of extensive genetic, medical and evolutionary research
  5. The spread of lactase persistence is an example of niche construction, the process by which organisms construct important components of their local environment in ways that introduce novel selection pressures. Human groups who first began to drink milk modified their selection pressure, generating an evolutionary feedback that advantaged.
  6. The lactase-persistence phenotype, which is frequent in populations of northern European extraction, is found at low frequency in most populations in sub-Saharan Africa but, in some populations, particularly pastoral groups, it is significantly more frequent

Lactase Persistence: Evidence for Selectio

It has been known for some 40 years that lactase production persists into adult life in some people but not in others. However, the mechanism and evolutionary significance of this variation have proved more elusive, and continue to excite the interest of investigators from different disciplines Lactase persistence evolved in several populations independently, probably as an adaptation to the domestication of dairy animals around 10,000 years ago. Today the prevalence of lactose tolerance varies widely between regions and ethnic groups The lactase persistence haplotype experienced very strong positive selection during the rise of dairy farming, around 5,000 to 10,000 years ago. It can be found in 80 percent of European-descended humans. Lactase persistence also sprang up separately in Kenya around 3,000-6,000 years ago

Lactase persistence, the ability to digest the milk sugar lactose in adulthood, is highly associated with a T allele situated 13,910 bp upstream from the actual lactase gene in Europeans Lactase activity is high and vital during infancy, but in most mammals, including most humans, lactase activity declines after the weaning phase. In other healthy humans, lactase activity persists at a high level throughout adult life, enabling them to digest lactose as adults Lactase persistence(lactose tolerance) is seen predominantly in individuals with northern European ancestry, especially Scandinavian, and in certain other populations, including some of the nomadic peoples of the middle east and Africa Lactase persistence (LP), the dominant Mendelian trait conferring the ability to digest the milk sugar lactose in adults, has risen to high frequency in central and northern Europeans in the last 20,000 years. This trait is likely to have conferred a selective advantage in individuals who consume appreciable amounts of unfermented milk. Some have argued for the culture-historical hypothesis.

Lactase persistence, which enables adults to digest lactose, is inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion [1, 2]. Recently, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located approximately 14 kb upstream of the lactase gene have been strongly correlated with the lactase persistent phenotype The Evolution of Lactase Persistence Humans are relatively unique among mammal species in that some of their adult population retains the ability to digest lactose, a sugar found in milk. This ability is the result of a mutation that occurred thousands of years ago, and that must have conferred some adaptive advantage to those with the trait Gaining Lactase Persistence: After birth, milk is the main source of nutrients for mammals, therefore being able to absorb lactose in high levels is mandatory. Carbohydrate sources are found in vegetables and meats in later stag es of mammalian life rather than milk. This makes the lactase enzyme redundant, and doesn't continue to process The SNP in Lactase Persistence In lactase persistence an enhancer site located 13910 base pairs upstream from the Lactase gene has a C replaced by a T. This SNP increases how strongly and how often the transcription factor Oct1 binds to this site. As an activator, Oct1 causes more general transcription factors to bind to the Lactase. LACTASE PERSISTENCE: EVIDENCE FOR SELECTION INTRODUCTION The ability of some human adults to digest lactose—the sugar in milk—is evidence of recent human evolution. All mammalian babies can digest lactose, using an enzyme called lactase. By adulthood, however, most mammals stop producing this enzyme. One exception is a minority of human adults who retain an active lactase enzyme

Genetics of lactase persistence and lactose intoleranc

Convergent adaptation of human lactase persistence in Africa and Europe. Nature Genetics 39:31-40. News articles: A kid-friendly description of Sarah Tishkoff's genetic studies from the University of Maryland. A news article on the search for a lactose tolerance mutation in Neolithic fossils from BBC New 1. Review the data in the following table. It shows the hydrogen breath levels of four individuals tested for lactase persistence. Time 0 represents the time before drinking milk and the other times are times after drinking milk 1. J Intern Med. 2018 Sep;284(3):254-269. doi: 10.1111/joim.12753. Epub 2018 Apr 10. Lactase persistence, milk intake, hip fracture and bone mineral density: a study of 97 811 Danish individuals and a meta-analysis

Results. Lactase persistence had no significant effect on the risk of prostate carcinoma in the Swedish study (OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.91-1.46; P = 0.23) or in the Finnish study (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.83-1.47; P = 0.488; Table 2).In the Swedish subjects with prostate cancer, the frequency of the lactase persistence (genotype C/T-13910 or T/T-13910) was 92.4% and in controls 93.1% Lactase persistence synonyms, Lactase persistence pronunciation, Lactase persistence translation, English dictionary definition of Lactase persistence. Noun 1. lactose intolerance - congenital disorder consisting of an inability to digest milk and milk products; absence or deficiency of lactase results in.. Lactase persistence is a common genetic trait in Europeans and other pastoralists. New ancient DNA evidence from a Bronze Age battlefield indicates that selection for lactase persistence was strong and on-going in the last 3,000 years Lactase persistence (LP; OMIM #223100) is defined as the continued lactase enzyme activity that helps to digest lactose in dairy products in human adulthood [].It follows a Mendelian autosomal heritance [] regulated by cis-acting elements of the lactase gene (LCT; OMIM *603202) [].Series of studies revealed five regulatory variants that are located in the 14 kb upstream of LCT in various. Lactose Intolerance Definition Lactose intolerance refers to the inability of the body to digest lactose. Description Lactose is the form of sugar present in milk. The enzyme lactase, which is normally produced by cells lining the small intestine, breaks down lactose into substances that can be absorbed into the bloodstream. When dairy products are.

Thomas thinks a combination of two reasons may explain the persistence of the lactase mutation in Northern Europe. First, the farmers that settled there came from the Fertile Crescent, and they. Adults low in lactase activity were also low in cross-reacting material. This suggests that lactase persistence is due to the continued synthesis of the infant enzyme. Flatz (1989) used the terms lactase persistence and lactase restriction for the 2 phenotypes, and LAC*P and LAC*R for the alleles

lactase persistence. enzyme continued to be produced post-weening breaks down lactose in the small intestine. detail how transcription is regulated in eukaryotes using the lactase gene as an example. regulated by specific transcription factors that turn on and off the transcription of gene Lactase persistence is the opposite of lactose intolerance. People who are lactase persistent continue to produce the enzyme lactase beyond infancy and generally throughout life. As a consequence, they are able to digest lactose and drink milk at older ages without adverse effects. The map above can also be read to show where lactase. Which discovery best supports the hypothesis that evolution of the lactase-persistence trait was driven by dairying, the use of milk as a source of adult nutrition in pastoralist cultures? Ancient pots used to hold milk are about the same age as the lactase-persistence mutations Lactase persistence, the opposite of lactose intolerance, is the result of an evolutionarily conserved mutation in the regulatory mechanisms of lactase-mRNA production. A SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) in the binding site of one of lactase's transcription factors is associated with the continuation of lactase production into adulthood To evaluate the clinical and nutritional significance of genetically determined lactase non-persistence and potential lactose and milk intolerance in 65-70% of the world's adult population. Milk consumption is decreasing in the USA and is the lowest in countries with a high prevalence of lactase non-persistence. The dairy industry and Minnesota investigators have made efforts to minimize.

Why and when was lactase persistence selected for

Lactase persistence is a late adaptation in the human evolution ( 3), and we suggest that a C to T substitution at position −13 910 has resulted in an increased activity of the −13 910 enhancer by creating a strong Oct-1 binding site. It is generally accepted that lactase persistence is a result of bypassing the postweaning decline of. Lactase persistence has been shown to be under strong positive selection in Europeans and East Africans, indicating that people who were able to digest milk had, historically, a higher fitness. In this study, the researchers were able to show that the signals observed in the Sudanese populations are consistent with positive selection

Lactase non-persistence is a condition where lactase activity is decreased in the intestinal wall after weaning. In European derived populations a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) C/T-13910 residing 13.9 kb upstream from the lactase gene has been shown to define lactase activity, and several other single nucleotide polymorphisms (G/C-14010 T/G-13915, C/G-13907 and T/C-13913) in the same. Lactase Persistence in Homo Sapiens. All mammals (including humans) are supposed to be born with the ability to produce an enzyme called lactase to breakdown lactose (a sugar found in milk), which allows them to take in the nutrients and energy from their mother's milk. However, after weaning, lactase production decreases as the organism is. Lactase persistence is the ability to digest milk into adulthood. There are a number of different genetic variants associated with lactase persistence and they are heterogeneously distributed in. Paleogeneticists at Mainz University have found evidence of lactase persistence in only a small proportion of human bones from the Bronze Age battlefield in the Tollense valley. The human ability to digest the milk sugar lactose after infancy spread throughout Central Europe in only a few thousand years. This is the conclusion reached by an.

Lactase persistence in europeans is well known and documented, and is caused by the SNP C/T-13910 (the numbers represent the position in the gene where the DNA change occurs). 90% of northern europe (specially in Sweden and Denmark) is lactase persistence, and ~50% of southern europe (Spain, French). The cause for lactase persistence in african. Lactase persistence (LP) is a genetically determined trait whereby the enzyme lactase is expressed throughout adult life. Lactase is necessary for the digestion of lactose - the main carbohydrate in milk - and its production is down-regulated after the weaning period in most humans and all other mammals studied For papers reporting on lactase persistence, data were converted to identify lactose malabsorption (one minus the frequency of lactase persistence). For countries with more than one measure of lactose malabsorption, a combined measure was calculated using the weighted arithmetic mean. Analyses were done for all studies combined, primary sources. Lactase Persistence: Evidence for Selection In this case study, students explore the story of the evolution of lactase persistence based on the short film Making of the Fittest: Got Lactase? The Co-evolution of Genes and Culture and makes connections between genotype, phenotype, and culture using graphical analysis skills

Lactose Intolerance and Lactase Persistence: Can You Drink

The spread of the European lactase persistence allele by Iain Mathieson 12 October 2019 The lactase persistence allele In European ancestry populations, the LCT/MCM6 locus on chromosome 2 exhibits one of the strongest signals of a hard selective sweep in the entire genome (Grossman et al. 2013, Mathieson et al. 2015). This is assumed to be due to selection on the derived A allele of rs4988235. Lactase expression persistence is largely due to natural selection. Natural selection is a component of evolution by which a trait affects the chances of the survival of organisms, and consequently, the trait becomes more prevalent in the population over time. Especially in Europe, the genetic variant -13,910*T has been strongly associated with. Lactase persistence is a heritable, autosomal dominant, condition that results in a sustained ability to digest the milk sugar lactose throughout adulthood. The majority of the world's human population experiences a decline in production of the digestive enzyme lactase-phlorizin hydrolase during maturation. However, individuals with lactase. A while back I read the pre-print The genetic variation of lactase persistence alleles in northeast Africa on Biorxiv, and I was quite surprised to read about the situation regarding lactase persistence alleles amongst South Sudanese people: Various reasons are there for my confusion. The biggest one is that they are surrounded by ethnic groups who do carry various lactase persistence alleles.

Evolutionary Genetics: Genetics of lactase persistence

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access A worldwide correlation of lactase persistence phenotype and genotypes Yuval Itan1,2*, Bryony L Jones1, Catherine JE Ingram1, Dallas M Swallow1, Mark G Thomas1,2,3 Abstract Background: The ability of adult humans to digest the milk sugar lactose - lactase persistence - is a dominan The lactase persistence trait is at low frequency in these populations: between 25% and 32% in the Kazakh population (traditionally herders), according to phenotype used, and between 11% and 30% in the Tajiko-Uzbek population (agriculturalists). The difference in lactase persistence between populations, even if small, is significant when using. Lactase persistence (LP) is common among people of European ancestry, but with the exception of some African, Middle Eastern and southern Asian groups, is rare or absent elsewhere in the world. Lactase gene haplotype conservation around a polymorphism strongly associated with LP in Europeans (-13,910 C/T) indicates that the derived allele is.

Evolution of lactase persistence: an example of human

Lactase Persistence: The Milk Revolution. The development of lactase persistence—or the ability to drink milk—may help explain Europe's Neolithic transition from hunter-gatherers to early agricultural societies. By Staff, Utne Reader. Not long after farming got its start in Europe, a genetic mutation that allowed adults to tolerate dairy. Lactase persistence is only common in adults with ancestry in pastoral populations. This is supported by the low levels of lactose intolerance in the United States Whites and the African Fulani and Tutsi populations. The ancestry of a large percentage of United States Whites is in Western Europe, where pastoralism was a common means of sustenance ラクターゼ活性持続症(ラクターゼかっせいじぞくしょう、英: Lactase persistence )とは、哺乳類であるのにもかかわらず、乳糖の消化酵素のラクターゼが、成体になっても活性を持ち続けることである。 乳糖分解酵素活性持続症(にゅうとうぶんかいこうそかっせいじぞくしょう)などとも呼ば.

Whether lactase persistence is an independent risk factor for CD or merely a marker of the likelihood of exposure to the MAP pathogen, found predominantly in milk products, is beyond the scope of this particular study. However epidemiological evidence is conflicting, indicating an urgent need for further, well controlled dietary and genetic. Scientists have been trying to decipher the how, the when, and the why of lactose tolerance in humans for a while. People with lactose tolerance (or lactase persistence, in scientific speak) tend. Lactase persistence (LP) is a trait in which lactose can be digested throughout adulthood, while lactase non-persistence (LNP) can cause lactose intolerance and influence dairy consumption. One single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP ID: rs4988235) is often used as a predictor for dairy intake, since it is responsible for LP in people in European descent, and can occur in other ethnic groups

A worldwide correlation of lactase persistence phenotype

Some scientists proposed that lactase persistence was the result of recent natural selection. Shutting down lactase production is common not just in people but in all mammals Lactase persistence, which measures the ability to consume milk, is a recent genetic adaptation that has been naturally selected since the Neolithic Revolution. My main hypothesis is that the consumption of milk increases the carrying capacity of a fixed quantity of land by increasing both the quantity of calories produced and through.

Lactase is the enzyme that allows humans to breakdown and fully digest lactose. In most people, lactase production tapers off after childhood, though it does persist in some Abstract. Purpose of Review: To evaluate the clinical and nutritional significance of genetically determined lactase non-persistence and potential lactose and milk intolerance in 65-70% of the world's adult population. Recent Findings: Milk consumption is decreasing in the USA and is the lowest in countries with a high prevalence of lactase. Lactase is an enzyme found in the mammalian small intestine that digests lactose, which is a sugar found in milk. Mammals use milk to feed their young, and in most mammals, the activity of lactase decreases after the young is weaned and can consume other foods. Lactose tolerance (also called lactose persistence), or being able to digest milk. Lactase persistence is the continued activity of the enzyme lactase in adulthood. Since lactase's only function is the digestion of lactose in milk, in most mammal species, the activity of the enzyme is dramatically reduced after weaning. In some human populations, though, lactase persistence has recently evolved as an adaptation to the consumption of nonhuman milk and dairy products beyond.

World map of Lactose Tolerance/Intolerance - Maps on the WebGB Lifesciences

Lactase persistence genotype data is currently insufficient to explain lactase persistence phenotype frequency in much of western and southern Africa, southeastern Europe, the Middle East and parts of central and southern Asia. We suggest that further studies of genetic variation in these regions should revea Introduction. Lactose is the main carbohydrate found in milk. The enzyme lactase, encoded by the LCT gene, allows for the breakdown of lactose in infant mammals. Various human populations continue to express LCT post weaning and can digest lactose into adulthood, a trait known as lactase persistence (LP) (Swallow, 2003).The rs4988235 (−13910 C > T) transition variant, or LP allele, in the. We modern humans may be able to control our environment and protect ourselves from the adverse consequences of disease, but our evolution never stops. The selective pressures that affect the numbers of viable offspring carrying novel DNA changes alter in time and space. Changes in lifestyle in the last 10 000 years have led to major changes in diet, making new dietary components potential. Lactase persistence (LP) or non-persistence (LNP) is a genetically determined trait related to the capacity of maintaining lactase activity till adulthood. LNP or lactase intolerance (LI) represents the ancestral state characterized by the downregulation of lactase activity [ 1 ]

In humans, the ability to digest lactose, the sugar in milk, declines after weaning because of decreasing levels of the enzyme lactase-phlorizin hydrolase, encoded by LCT. However, some individuals maintain high enzyme amounts and are able to digest lactose into adulthood (i.e., they have the lactase-persistence [LP] trait). It is thought that selection has played a major role in maintaining. A single-nucleotide variant, C/T-13910, located 14 kb upstream of the lactase gene (LCT), has been shown to be completely correlated with lactase persistence (LP) in northern Europeans. Here, we analyzed the background of the alleles carrying the critical variant in 1,611 DNA samples from 37 populations. Our data show that the T-13910 variant. Daniel Wegmann of the University of Fribourg said that for such a change to have taken place in just 3,000 years, lactase-persistent individuals must have had more children, or their children must. Convergent adaptation of human lactase persistence in Africa and Europe. Nature Genetics, 39: 31-40. Share this: Click to print (Opens in new window) Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window

Lactase is an enzyme.It breaks down lactose, a sugar in milk and milk products. Some people's bodies do not make enough lactase, so they are not able to digest milk well, which can lead to. The lactase persistence trait was favoured by evolution and today it is extremely common in some populations. In northern Europe, more than 90% of people are lactase persistent Just 10,000 years ago, no one past infancy could digest milk sugar, called lactose. Babies always made lactase, the enzyme that breaks down this sugar, but after weaning lactase production would stop

The Geographically Biased Emergence of Lactase Persistence

lactase (LCT) gene transcription that directs 2 phenotypes: a decline in LCT activity (LCT nonpersistence) in mid-childhood in the majority of the world's population, and maintenance of the lactase levels found in infancy (LCT persistence) in people of northern European extraction and scattered populations elsewhere. The molecular mechanisms that regulate these phenotypes are not completely. Just 5,000 years ago, lactase persistence was almost non-existent among populations in which its modern prevalence is greater than 60 percent. The researchers assume that extensive positive. Whether there is a causal relationship between milk intake and acne is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that genetically determined milk intake is associated with acne in adults using a Mendelian randomization design. LCT-13910 C/T (rs4988235) is associated with lactase persistence (TT/TC) in Northern Europeans. We investigated the association between milk intake, LCT-13910 C/T (rs4988235. The lactase persistence (LP) trait in the Fulani is conferred by the presence of the allele T-13910, which is also present at high frequencies in Europe. We establish that the T-13910 LP allele in Fulani individuals analysed in this study lies on a European haplotype background thus excluding parallel convergent evolution The current distribution of lactase persistence would seem to suggest an origin in Northwest Europe - especially Ireland and Scandanivia - since it is found at its highest frequency there.

NM_002299.2(LCT):c.-13907C>T AND Lactase persistence ..

Lactase persistence is one of the clearest examples of niche construction in humans. Lactase is the enzyme responsible for the digestion of the milk sugar lactose and its production decreases after the weaning phase in most mammals, including most humans. Some humans, however, continue to produce lactase throughout adulthood, a trait known as. Lactase persistence is a genetic trait, which varies in frequency in different populations of the world. Mutations in an enhancer sequence, at a distance from the lactase gene, appear to be responsible for lactase persistence. These alleles arose in the last few thousand years and have been under strong positive selection Lactase persistence (LP) is a well-studied example of a Mendelian trait under selection in some human groups due to gene-culture co-evolution. We investigated the frequencies of genetic variants linked to LP in Sudanese and South Sudanese populations. These populations have diverse subsistence patterns, and some are dependent on milk to various extents, not only from cows, but also from other.

This European lactase persistence allele soon came to be most concentrated along the Baltic and North Seas, what I call the core area of lactase persistence. Due to the heavy use of cattle in the core region, lactase persistence spread rapidly there, surpassing half the population by about 1500 BC polymorphisms conferring lactase persistence in Northern Eur-opeans, which arose with the advent of cattle breeding [26]. Just as in Europe, pastoralism arose in East Africa around 4,000-10,000 years ago [27] leading to selection for lactase persistence [28]. In the Maasai, pastoralism led to a lactose rich, high fat, hig A study has determined a genetic link between Northern European ancestry and lactase persistence, which allows a minority of people to digest lactose, found in milk. By James Heise The lactase persistence allele. In European ancestry populations, the LCT/MCM6 locus on chromosome 2 exhibits one of the strongest signals of a hard selective sweep in the entire genome (Grossman et al. 2013, Mathieson et al. 2015).This is assumed to be due to selection on the derived A allele of rs4988235 (i.e. the T allele of -13910 C>T) which is associated with adult lactase persistence. Lactase persistence, which enables adults to digest lactose, is inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion [1, 2]. Recently, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located approximately 14 kb upstream of the lactase gene have been strongly correlated with the lactase persistent phenotype. Of particular interest is

The Making of the Fittest: Got Lactase? The Co-evolution

The condition of lactase persistence (LP), found only in humans, allows the individual to continue to ingest and absorb lactose into adulthood. In European populations and some Afro-Arab pastoral groups, the LP condition has been shown to be due to SNPs found 13.9 kb upstream of the LCT gene and actually located within the 13th intron of the. Lactase persistence (LP), the continued expression of lactase into adulthood, is the most strongly selected single gene trait over the last 10,000 years in multiple human populations. It has been posited that the primary allele causing LP among Eurasians, rs4988235- Lactase Persistence in Humans. by Nadia Sellami, Julie A. Morris, and Sheela Vemu. I Scream for Ice Cream: Introduction. It is finals week on college campus and everybody is in the middle of studying for exams, just waiting for summer break. Björn, Chris, Esiankiki, Xiao-Ma, Sanjeet and Linda are studying together in the international students.

Lactose intolerance and gastrointestinal cow’s milk

In Eurasia, the dominant genetic cause of lactase persistence (LP) is the result of a C → T transition 13 910 bases upstream of the lactase gene (LCT), resulting in lifetime expression of lactase phlorizin hydrolase. The enzyme cleaves the milk sugar lactose into glucose and galactose and consequently prevents lactose build up in the gut that. Lactase persistence (LP), the continued expression of lactase into adulthood, is the most strongly selected single gene trait over the last 10,000 years in multiple human populations. It has been posited that the primary allele causing LP among Eurasians, rs4988235*T (Enattah et al. 2008), only rose to appreciable frequencies during the Bronze. Lactase persistence allows hydrolyzation of lactose and uptake of the resulting glucose and galactose directly in the small intestine of adults and is linked to lactose tolerance. In a striking parallel, one of the strongest signals for human genotype effects on the gut microbiome also relates to lactase persistence

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