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Tracheostomy review article

A systematic review and meta-analysis of the entire COVID-19 Tracheostomy cohort was conducted to determine the cumulative incidence of complications, mortality, time to decannulation and ventilatory weaning. Outcomes of surgical versus percutaneous and outcomes relative to tracheostomy timing were also analysed Angulation of the tracheostomy tube should be avoided since this may lead to stenosis . 12.2 Tube cuff pressure Tracheotomy tube cuffs require monitoring to maintain pressures in a range of 20-25 mmHg ( Fig. 4 ) [25]

Systematic review and meta-analysis of tracheostomy

  1. Background: A multidisciplinary tracheostomy team was created in 2005 to follow critically ill patients who had undergone a tracheostomy until their discharge from hospital. Composed of a surgeon, surgical resident, respiratory therapist, speech-language pathologist and clinical nurse specialist, this team has been meeting twice a week for rounds involving patients who transitioned from the.
  2. Fourteen articles were excluded as they were not related to the process of decannulation. Another 9 articles from paediatrics were also excluded. The remaining 39 articles included 24 observational studies, 5 case series, 1 case report, 4 editorials and special comments, 2 questionnaires or expert opinions and 1 systematic review
  3. After the articles were read, a review of the articles' bibliographical references was performed in order to identify other potentially relevant studies. In the Medline and PubMed databases, the MeSH terms tracheotomy and tracheostomy were used; they were associated with complications, child, and mortality as.
  4. Tracheotomy is a procedure commonly used in intensive care, albeit with great disparities between medical teams in terms of frequency (5-54%) and modality (surgical or percutaneous) [1, 2].Although tracheotomy has a long history, its utility, indications, duration, and techniques are the subject of debate [3, 4].Also, the real or potential advantages of tracheotomy need to be weighed against.

Importance The care of patients with a surgically modified airway, such as tracheostomy or laryngectomy, represents a challenge for speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in the context of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The objective was to review available publications and practice guidelines on management of tracheostomy and laryngectomy in the context of COVID-19 Between 1993 and 2012, 9.1% of adult patients (n = 1,352,432) requiring mechanical ventilation received a tracheostomy. 9 A 2013 review of the University Health System Consortium database of patients cared for between 2002 and 2008 revealed that, of 44,124 acute respiratory failure subjects,. Tracheostomy in COVID-19: Many opportunities, limited evidence. By Andrew DeMaio, M.D. and David Feller-Kopman, M.D. Let's start with a case - one that unfortunately we have seen way too frequently over the past few months. A 61-year-old man with ESRD on hemodialysis and prior pulmonary embolism was admitted to the ICU for ARDS due to COVID-19 This will facilitate planning and allow national review and audit. The diameter and length of the tracheostomy tube should be appropriate for the size and anatomy of the individual patient and should generally contain an inner tube. Training for bedside staff should include routine care as well as resuscitation procedures for tracheostomy patients

Twenty-one articles were finally included in the systematic review. We found no differences in minor, major or early complications between the two techniques. However, late complications were significantly more frequent in the tracheostomy group [OR (95% CI) 0.21 (0.20-0.22), p < 0.0001] The aim of this article is to share our protocol for performing a safe surgical tracheostomy in this COVID-19 era. Tracheostomy procedures have a high risk of aerosol generat Guidelines for Surgical Tracheostomy and Tracheostomy Tube Change During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Review Article Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2020 Sep;72. Tracheostomy is one of the earliest surgical procedures recorded, with illustrations depicting it as early as 3600 B.C. in ancient Egypt. A tracheostomy (or tracheotomy, while there are technical differences, these terms are colloquially used interchangeably. For the purposes of this article, we will use 'tracheostomy') is a surgical procedure. The indications for and the number of tracheostomy procedures has increased with advances in critical care. Studies are indicating likely continued increase in number of tracheostomies. Despite the important benefits of a tracheostomy, its presence is associated with adverse health complications and lowered patient quality of life. Hence, it must be decannulated as soon as it is no longer.

Tracheostomy is performed in approximately 10%-15% of patients who are admitted to intensive care units (ICU).1 This procedure, which involves either percutaneous or surgical placement of a tube across the anterior neck into the airway, may be indicated for relief of airway obstruction, facilitation of pulmonary toilet and for facilitation of wean from mechanical ventilation.2 In addition. The tracheostomy tube is introduced over the guidewire after dilation. In this review, we will focus primarily on the percutaneous technique. Since its introduction in 1985 , various modifications in percutaneous dilational techniques have been introduced and are briefly discussed Tobin AE, Santamaria JD: An intensivist-led tracheostomy review team is associated with shorter decannulation time and lenght of stay: a prospective cohort study. Crit Care. 2008, 12: R48-10.1186/cc6864. Article PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar 26. Stelfox HT, Crimi C, Berra L, Noto A, Schmidt U, Bigatello LM, Hess D: Determinants of.

Fractured tracheostomy tube obturator: A rare cause of

Peer review. This article has been subject to external double-blind peer review and checked for plagiarism using automated software. Correspondence. c.b.flaherty@mdx.ac.uk. Conflict of interest. None declared. Flaherty C (2020) Tracheostomy care: the role of the nurse before, during and after insertion. Nursing Standard. doi: 10.7748/ns.2020.e1150 The purpose of this review was to identify whether multidisciplinary tracheostomy outreach teams enable the reduction in time to decannulation and length of stay in acute and sub-acute settings, improve quality of care or decrease adverse events for patients with a tracheostomy. We included all relevant trials published in English Tracheostomy tube placement is a therapeutic procedure that has gained increased favor over the past decade. Upper airway obstructions, failure to liberate from the ventilator, and debilitating neurological conditions are only a few indications for tracheostomy tube placement. Tracheostomy tubes can be placed either surgically or percutaneously

Results. Total of 56 full article studies were obtained on PubMed database search, out of which 40 studies were excluded due to not relevant title, not relevant content, review articles, head neck oncology related tracheostomy Key Points. Question Is tracheostomy associated with COVID-19 outcomes among patients or SARS-CoV-2 transmission among health care professionals (HCPs)?. Findings In this systematic review and meta-analysis, 69 nonrandomized studies including 4669 total patients were identified that evaluated tracheostomy in COVID-19. While the use of enhanced personal protective equipment in tracheostomy in.

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Dysphagia Therapy in Adults with a Tracheostomy: A Scoping Review Protocol. Kadri W, Halfpenny R, Whiten B, Smith C, Mulkerrin S. Preprint from Research Square, 07 Jun 2021 DOI: 10.21203/rs.3.rs-593909/v1 PPR: PPR353615 . Preprint This article is a preprint. It may not have been peer reviewed.. The incidence of postoperative complications after head and neck surgery is high. This study evaluated the influence of early elective tracheostomy on the incidence of postoperative pneumonia and delirium. We reviewed the data of all patients who had undergone removal of an oropharyngeal tumor and microsurgical tissue transfer at our department in a two year period article, we review appropriate post-procedural care for PDT and PEG, as well as possible complications that can develop. Review Article Wound care management: tracheostomy and gastrostomy Sammar Alsunaid 1, Van K. Holden , Akshay Kohli2, Jose Diaz3, Lindsay B. O'Meara The major causes of death were tracheostomy-related hemorrhage in 27 patients (38.0%) and airway complications in 21 patients (29.6%). In 31.0% of cases, fatal complications occurred during the procedure and in 49.3% of cases within seven days of the procedure. 73.2% of patients had specific risk factors and 25.4% of patients had more than one risk factor

Tracheotomy: clinical review and guidelines☆ European

The novel corona virus disease (COVID-19) has unfolded into a pandemic and is continuing to propagate at a frightening speed. The aim of this article is to share our protocol for performing a safe surgical tracheostomy in this COVID-19 era. Tracheostomy procedures have a high risk of aerosol generation. To standardize institutional safety measures with tracheostomy, we advocate using a. Tracheostomy is one of the more commonly performed procedures in critically ill patients yet the optimal method of performing tracheostomies in this population remains to be established. The aim of this study was to systematically review and quantitatively synthesize all randomized clinical trials (RCTs), comparing elective percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT) and surgical tracheostomy. The tracheostomy tube is introduced over the guidewire after dilation. In this review, we will focus primarily on the percutaneous technique. Since its introduction in 1985 (9), various modifications in percutaneous dilational techniques have been introduced Review Article Percutaneous tracheostomy: a comprehensive review A New Model of Tracheostomy Care 525 The group reviewed the charts of any inpatient who had received a tracheostomy. Finally, staff nurses at WRAMC were given a knowledge assessment test on tracheostomy care and suctioning. After completing a thorough literature review and collecting the staff knowledge data, work commenced on the written. choice for tracheostomy, PDT can be associated with major complications, including death. Each year, approximately 500 patients in the United States die or are permanently disabled because of a tracheostomy (5). In a meta-analysis of Review Article Managing complications of percutaneous tracheostomy and gastrostomy Aline N. Zouk, Hitesh Batr

Tracheostomy in the Management of Respiratory Problems. List of authors. John M. Head, M.D. †. March 23, 1961. N Engl J Med 1961; 264:587-591. DOI: 10.1056/NEJM196103232641203. THIS discussion. Tracheostomy, an ancient surgical procedure originally described in the first century BC [], is one of the more commonly performed surgical procedures in critically ill patients who require prolonged mechanical ventilation, and is predicted to become more common as demand for intensive care services increases [2, 3].Approximately 10% of mechanically ventilated critically ill patients receive a. a. In most cases the selected tracheostomy tube should extend at least 2 cm beyond the stoma, and no closer than 1-2 cm to the carina. b. The diameter of the tracheostomy tube should be selected to avoid damage to the tracheal wall, to minimize work of breathing, and, when possible, to promote translaryngeal airflow

Impact of a specialized multidisciplinary tracheostomy

  1. Review of tracheostomy care. NCEPOD reviewed the care of adults who had a surgical or percutaneous tracheostomy inserted or a laryngectomy between 25 February and 12 May 2013 (NCEPOD, 2014). The review found the number of tracheostomies performed has increased in recent years, a trend that affects nurses
  2. g of tracheostomy in adult patients undergoing artificial ventilation. BMJ 2005; 330:1243
  3. Similarly, Luo's small retrospective review (N = 72) identified a clear positive significant improvement in weight gain, linear growth and head circumference in severe BPD patients after tracheostomy . Despite a lower caloric diet, infants post-tracheostomy showed greater weight gain compared to pre-tracheostomy

The practice of tracheostomy decannulation—a systematic revie

  1. g of tracheostomy in SCI patients and evaluate the potential benefits of early versus late tracheostomy. METHODS: We searched Medline, PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and PsycINFO for published studies. We included studies on adults with SCI who underwent early or late tracheostomy and compared.
  2. REVIEW. Tracheostomy 1: caring for patients with a tracheostomy. 09 May, 2016. Many nurses lack essential training to manage blocked or dislodged tracheostomy tubes. This article provides information on the care of patients with a tracheostomy. Abstract

The review draws on articles where parents' views of caring for their child's tracheostomy were either the sole focus of the research or where parental views of caring for their child's tracheostomy have been sought as a subsidiary aim 20 Nursing Times 25.05.16 / Vol 112 No 21/22/23 / www.nursingtimes.net Keywords:Permanent tracheostomy/ Body image/Discharge planning This article has been double-blind peer reviewed Author Erica Everitt is specialist tracheostomy practitioner at Norfolk severe head injury, spinal-cord injury an Postoperative care of patients with a tracheostomy during the COVID-19 pandemic requires thoughtful, multidisciplinary collaboration. 156-158 This article provides a critical review of current literature, further informed by expert opinion in several complementary disciplines. The guidance presented herein should be informed by local expertise. Anomalies of vascular anatomy in the neck are well recognised. We present a case of a very rare aberrant artery discovered during tracheostomy. Elective tracheostomy was performed in theatre for an elderly gentleman on long-term ventilation. Pre-operative examination of the neck revealed no obvious abnormality. During surgery, a large vessel was revealed overlying the tracheal fourth ring

Tracheostomy tube displacement is rare but can be fatal. A recent study reported that the incidence was <1/1000 tracheostomy tube days. However, this airway emergency was the most common cause of major morbidity and mortality from airway management in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) in the United Kingdom during the national audit of the major complications of airway management conducted by the Royal. Stroke patients requiring decompressive craniectomy are at high risk of prolonged mechanical ventilation and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Tracheostomy placement may reduce the duration of mechanical ventilation. Predicting which patients will require tracheostomy and the optimal timing of tracheostomy remains a clinical challenge. In this study, the authors compare key outcomes after. Tracheostomy is one of the most frequently performed procedures in intensive care medicine. The two main approaches to form a tracheostoma are the open surgical tracheotomy (ST) and the interventional strategy of percutaneous dilatational tracheotomy (PDT). It is particularly important to the critically ill patients that both procedures are performed with high success rates and low. Purpose The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature relating to the feasibility, utility, and safety of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) interventions and tracheostomy-related communication interventions with mechanically ventilated adult patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) Tracheostomy care and tracheal suctioning are high-risk procedures, and nurses performing these procedures must adhere to the latest evidence -based practice guidelines (Nance- Floyd, 2011). Always check the policy and procedures for tracheostomy care in the facility and unit on which you are working

After the articles were read, a review of the articles' bibliographical references was performed in order to identify other potentially relevant studies. In the Medline and PubMed databases, the MeSH terms tracheotomy and tracheostomy were used; they were associated with complications, child, and mortality as qualifiers Tracheostomy is usually suggested for ventilator-dependent or difficult-to-wean patients . Although the benefits of tracheostomy on weaning outcomes remain controversial , replacement of the endotracheal tube with a tracheostomy tube has been shown to reduce the work of breathing and improve the clearance of airway secretion [7-11]. To the. A tracheostomy is an opening into the trachea through the neck just below the larynx through which an indwelling tube is placed and thus an artificial airway is created. It is used for clients needing long-term airway support. Tracheostomy tubes have an outer cannula that is inserted into the trachea and a flange that rests against the neck and allows the tube to be secured in place with tape. A systematic review of the literature on the role of tracheostomy in COVID-19 patients. Department of Neurosciences, Reproductive and Odontostomatological Sciences, Maxillofacial Surgery Research Unit, University Federico II of Naples, Naples, Italy. piombino@unina.it. The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a viral infection caused by. Introduction. Percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT) has been used as an effective method for many patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) since its first description by Ciaglia et al ().The most appropriate level for puncturing the trachea for PDT is not entirely clear; however, most authors hypothesize that the location of choice for seeking needle entry should be between the first.

Tracheostomy in childhood: review of the literature on

This review article identified that the studies in their review were underpowered to detect true differences in laryngo-tracheal injury with prolonged intubation leading to conclusion there is insufficient evidence to identify a relationship between early v later tracheotomy and laryngotracheal long term injur Background. While single-institution studies reported the indications and outcomes of tracheostomy in children with congenital heart disease (CHD), no national analyses have been performed. We sought to examine the indications, performance, outcomes, and resource utilization of tracheostomy in children with CHD using a nationally representative database.Methods In this article, we discuss the causes and frequency of death associated with open surgical tracheotomy (OST) and percutaneous dilatational tracheotomy (PDT) on the basis of a review of the. Multiple professional otolaryngology organizations have established a set of guidelines regarding tracheostomy recommendations during the COVID-19 pandemic. 8, 9 The purpose of this article is to explore the utility of tracheostomy in COVID-19 patients and review current literature for insight into other special considerations regarding.

Tracheotomy in the intensive care unit: guidelines from a

A commonly used test to determine whether a critically ill patient with a tracheostomy tube is ready for decannulation is a capping trial, in which a cap is placed over the tracheostomy tube for a. The objective of this systematic review is to analyze complications following cricothyroidotomy and tracheostomy in airway emergencies. Methods: This synthesis of literature was exempt from ethics.

Swallowing and Communication Management of Tracheostomy

Tracheostomy is an invasive procedure, there are several complications such as bleeding, stomal infection, pneumothorax and tracheal stenosis 7, 8. There are two major techniques for tracheostomy, including open surgical tracheostomy (ST) and percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT) BACKGROUND: Despite advances in care of critically ill neonates, extended mechanical ventilation and tracheostomy are sometimes required. Few studies focus on complications and clinical outcomes. Our aim was to provide long-term outcomes for a cohort of infants who required tracheostomy. METHODS: This study is a retrospective review of 165 infants born between January 1, 2000 and December 31.

Obligation of home care education for tracheostomy. Patient education is the process by which the health professionals and others impart information to patients and their caregivers that will alter the patients' health behaviors and improve their wellbeing status [].This is a combination of methods including the provision of information, counsel and advice; behavior modification techniques. Tracheostomy is recommended in case of prolonged mechanical ventilation. Therefore, most patients with an indication for venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) will also have an indication for tracheostomy. We report 2 cases of fatal air embolism into the ECMO system as complication of percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy. Both patients had an AVALON ELITE® bi-caval cannula. Review Understanding tracheostomy tubes; Understanding tracheostomy tubes Elizabeth Doyle Thursday, April 2, 2020 It is important in veterinary practice that registered veterinary nurses (RVNs) understand why and when a tracheostomy tube may need to be placed in a patient, especially as it is often an emergency procedure.. Review Article Indications, timing and coagulation management for tracheostomy during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support Massimo Baiocchi, Maria Benedetto, Vittorio Ferrari Department of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anaesthesia and Intensive care Sant' Orsola University Hospital, Bologna, Italy Correspondence to: Massimo Baiocchi, MD.

Purpose As the COVID-19 pandemic has unfolded, there has been growing recognition of risks to frontline health care workers. When caring for patients with tracheostomy, speech-language pathologists have significant exposure to mucosal surfaces, secretions, and aerosols that may harbor the SARS-CoV-2 virus. This tutorial provides guidance on practices for safely performing patient evaluation. This article describes evidence-based guidelines for tracheostomy care, focusing on open and closed suctioning and site care. Suctioning a trach tube A trach tube may have a single or double lumen; it may be cuffed or uncuffed, fenestrated (allowing speech) or unfenestrated

Myiasis may occur different tissues, but reports of myiasis of the tracheal stoma are rare. We searched PubMed, MedLine, Lilacs, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases for scientific articles published in English or Spanish languages during 1990-2015 by using the search term myiasis and tracheostomy. We found reports of 10 patients Tracheostomy in ancient Egypt. Tracheostomy is a procedure often said to have been invented and performed by the ancient Egyptians. Reference Pahor and David 9, Reference Goldenberg, Golz, Netzer and Joachims 14 - Reference Seid, Gluckman and Paparella 34 This claim is usually based on scenes depicted on the slab of King Aha and the slab of King Djer (), although the procedure is sometimes. A high possibility of death in children with severe disability receiving home medical care has been reported. 8,9 A systematic review of nine studies showed that the strongest prognostic factors.

Video: AARC Clinical Practice Guideline: Management of Adult

Tracheostomy in COVID-19: Who, When, How? - PulmCC

Improving the quality of tracheostomy care European

PURPOSE: Tracheostomy is a common procedure performed in critically-ill patients in the intensive care units (ICU) for airway protection and long-term mechanical ventilation after failed attempts at extubation. Its use continues to increase globally despite debates about the proper timing and the correct identification of the patient population that will benefit the most from the procedure We then excluded two of the randomised studies because the timing of early and late tracheostomy were separated only by a 24 hour period,19 20 another because the timing of the early tracheostomy was after seven days (a criterion of this review),18 and a further two because the articles did not contain any data on the outcome measures on which.

Complications of cricothyroidotomy versus tracheostomy in

The project scope was determined through a review of available consensus statements on tracheostomy care (appendix pp 4-7). We did a literature and internet search to identify and extract data from primary sources, and gathered first-hand accounts of tracheostomy during the current pandemic from discussion among working group members Tracheostomy tubes have different features depending on their intended use. There are a large variety of tubes available which provide some or all of these features. Introducers/Obturator An Obturator can be used when inserting a tracheostomy tube to prevent damaging the trachea during insertion of the tube. It rounds off the end of the tube A tracheostomy may be temporary or it may be permanent. The doctors will explain your child's specific needs to you before the surgery. When your child has recovered from surgery, the doctors review his needs again and discuss this with you Speech and Safety in Tracheostomy Patients Receiving Mechanical Ventilation: A Systematic Review CE Article Vinciya Pandian, PhD, MBA, MSN, RN, ACNP-BC; Vinciya Pandian, PhD, MBA, MSN, RN, ACNP-BC Vinciya Pandian is an associate professor, Johns Hopkins School of Nursing, Baltimore, Maryland. Sarah Boisen is an intensive care unit. The impact of percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT) on the development of post-median sternotomy wound infection (SWI) and mediastinitis is still controversial. We aimed to investigate the frequency of cross-infection and incidence of SWI after PDT. In a retrospective design, out of a total of 4100 procedures, all patients who had undergone median sternotomy and postoperative PDT were.

Guidelines for Surgical Tracheostomy and Tracheostomy Tube

Tracheostomy - PubMe

A tracheostomy is a hole that a doctor makes in your windpipe to make it easier for you to breathe. Learn more about when you would need a tracheostomy, the procedure, aftercare, risks, and results Related Articles: Percutaneous tracheostomy The use of tracheostomy for prolonged ventilation Griffiths et al. Systematic Review of tracheostomy timing. BMJ 2005 Delaney et al. Systematic review of tracheostomy technique. Crit Care 2006 Dulguerov et al. Systematic review of tracheostomy technique. CCM 199 the first part of my comment got lost i simply stated that the beginning article (Guidelines for Tracheostomy and Laryngectomy Emergencies (Anaesthesia 2012;67:1025) was wonderfully helpful. patients with trachs/laryngectomies coming in with respiratory distress has always caused me exceeding angst, but much less now after this clear. Tracheostomy, due to its inherent increased morbidity, mortality and influence on social stigma, should be viewed only as a last resort. In this article, available conservative and alternative therapies for ongoing LS are thoroughly reviewed. Methods: A systematic review concerning randomized clinical trials and prospective studies on treatment.

A Comprehensive Review of Pediatric Endotracheal Suctioning

Severe post tracheostomy (PT) and post intubation (PI) tracheal stenosis is an uncommon clinical entity that often requires interventional bronchoscopy before surgery is considered. We present our experience with severe PI and PT stenosis in regards to patient characteristics, possible risk factors, and therapy. We conducted a retrospective chart review of 31 patients with PI and PT stenosis. Bacterial tracheitis affects 2 groups of pediatric patients: those with a native, intact airway and those with an artificial airway established with an endotracheal tube or tracheotomy tube. Bacterial tracheitis without tracheotomy is also known as membranous laryngotracheobronchitis, bacterial laryngotracheobronchitis, and pseudomembranous croup Safety of percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy in patients with acute brain injury and reduced PaO 2 /FiO 2 ratio-retrospective analysis of 54 patients. World Neurosurg. 2017;105:102-7. Article Google Scholar 2. Browd SR, MacDonald JD. Percutaneous dilational tracheostomy in neurosurgical patients In a Cochrane review 11 of 16 trials that compared NIV with IMV weaning, NIV significantly reduced mortality, weaning failures, ventilator associated pneumonia, ICU and hospital length of stay, total duration of IMV and rates of tracheostomy. In subgroup analysis, the authors found that the mortality benefit was greater in COPD versus non-COPD. Article: Tracheobronchopathia osteochondroplastica: a cause of chronic cough and haemoptysis. Article: Evaluation of Endovascular Intervention for Tracheo-Innominate Artery Fistula: A Systematic Review. Article: Tracheocutaneous Fistula After Pediatric Open Airway Reconstruction. Tracheal Disorders -- see more articles

Pediatric tracheostomy care: What home care nurses need to know Learn about evidence-based practices that help ensure safe care. By Deborah S. Boroughs, MSN, RN, and Joan M. Dougherty, BSN, RN, CPN, CSN Suction pressure recommendations The following tracheostomy suction pressures are based on evidence: • Neonates: 60 to 80 mm H Tracheostomy is a common airway procedure for life support. The fracture of the tracheostomy tube is a rare complication. We report a case of a 14-year-old boy whose fractured stainless steel tracheostomy tube dislodged into the tracheobronchial tree. We include a literature review and proposed recommendations for tracheostomy care. A 14-year-old Thai boy who had a stainless steel tracheostomy. The objective of this study was to establish the pattern, indications, complications, timing of surgery and outcomes following tracheostomy in children. Patients and Methods: We carried out a 10-year retrospective review of medical records of children (0-15 years) who had undergone tracheostomy, between June 2003 and May 2013 in a single. Weaning from prolonged mechanical ventilation is extremely difficult in tracheostomized patients with restrictive pulmonary dysfunction. High-flow oxygen via tracheostomy supplies heated and humidified oxygen gas at > 10 L/minute. However, little has been reported on the use of high-flow oxygen via tracheostomy during weaning from ventilators in patients with restrictive pulmonary dysfunction

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