Personal monitoring devices in radiology ppt

  1. e the personal exposure history are: Radiation Film Badges Pocket Dosimeter Radiation film badges are composed of two pieces of film, covered by light tight paper in a compact plastic container
  2. • Personnel monitoring • Amount of x-radiation that reaches the body of the dental radiologist can be measured through the use of a personal- monitoring device known as a film badge. 48. . • Consists of a piece of radiographic film in a plastic holder
  3. Personnel monitoring devices shall be used by all radiation worker. . Each equipment must have separate log book which provide information about equipment manufacturer, model, serial no., max kV & max mA. 27. Radiation safety in Diagnostic Radiology The radiation safety of radiatin worker :
  4. Radiation monitoring instruments are used both for area monitoring and for individual monitoring. The instruments used for measuring radiation For individual monitoring the personal dose equivalent H p (d) is defined, which is the dose equivalent in soft tissue below a specified point on the body at depth d (see also Chapter 16)
  5. IAEA Review of Radiation Oncology Physics: A Handbook for Teachers and Students - 4.2.1 Slide 1 4.2 OPERATIONAL QUANTITIES FOR RADIATION MONITORING 4.2.1 Dosimetric quantities for radiation protection Recommendations regarding dosimetric quantities and units in radiation protection dosimetry are set forth by the International Commission on Radiation Units an
  6. Most personal radiation monitoring devices of this type can be self-read and feature alarm signals. Users can select specific alarms for early warnings of radiation exposure. The dosimeter can also be set to alarm when high radiation levels are detected. Because it is self-read, the dosimeter instantly displays the readout

detect gamma and beta radiation. Periodically monitor in a 360 degree circle to ensure that you have not walked by a source of radiation. Monitor for radiation with the detector at waist level and periodically check above and below this level. When a source of radiation is discovered, survey as necessary to determine its approximate location Placement of Personal Radiation Monitoring Devices.. 41 Use of Postexposure Shuttering, Cropping and Electronic Masking in Radiography.. 44 . Effective June 23, 2019 PS 1 Preface A profession's practice standards serve as a guide for appropriate practice. The practice. Radiation Therapy Radiography . Effective June 23, 2019 Placement of Personal Radiation Monitoring Devices.. 40 Use of Postexposure Shuttering, Cropping and Electronic Masking in Radiography.. 43 . Effective June 23, 2019 PS 1 Preface A profession's practice standards serve as a guide for appropriate practice..

ing patient treatment. Because wearables are personal devices that provide objective and contin-uous monitoring of vital parameters, they can be used as a clinical tool to determine the patterns of a particular disease, provide an improved understanding of the disease, and monitor the health information of users (1) Indirect monitoring using environmental pathways analysis, along with other information to estimate doses. Personal dosimetry techniques vary and depend partly on whether the source of radiation is outside the body (external) or taken into the body (internal). Personal dosimeters are used to measure external radiation . exposures Electronic Personal Dosimeter(EPD) Radiation Instruments Car Gate Radiation Instruments Conveyor Radiation Instruments Truck Monitor Radiation Instruments Security Gates Gas Detectors Ionization Chambers Proportional Counters Geiger-Mueller Counters (GMs) Page(s): 111 to 125 Page numbers refer to handout:Chapter 8: Radiation Measurements Radiation survey meters (e.g., Geiger Muller and similar devices) detect radiation in real time Personal dosimeters Film badges do NOT provide information in real time, but they can detect prior radiation exposure if the device was worn at the time of exposure

Thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) is a passive radiation detection device that is used for personal dose monitoring or to measure patient dose.. Parts. plastic holder; nickel-coated aluminum card with TLD discs. the discs are made of a thermoluminescent material, commonly calcium sulphate doped with dysprosium (CaSO 4: Dy) or lithium fluoride (LiF). nearly tissue equivalent, although not at. Personal radiation monitoring . Some occupations may involve an elevated risk of radiation exposure, and workers may be required to wear a personal radiation monitoring device (PMD) during their duties to monitor their level of exposure to radiation RADIATION INFORMATION FOR HOSPITAL PERSONNEL 1. INTRODUCTION X-ray machines and radiation emitting sources are used in hospitals for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases Ionizing Radiation Locations of ionizing radiation in our facility Type, quantity, and use Radioactive material is any material that emits, by spontaneous nuclear disintegration, corpuscular or electromagnetic emanations Restricted/high radiation areas - definitions Restricted area Unrestricted area Radiation area High radiation area Restricted/high radiation areas - definitions Airborne. An alarming personal radiation detector worn on the body to detect photons and alarm if preset thresholds for either exposure rate or accumulated dose are exceeded. Designed to be used in harsh environments, with high exposure rates (>10 R per hour) for emergency response applications. Appropriate device for responder dose monitoring and contro

5.radiation protection - SlideShar

  1. Regular monitoring of performance and regular communication of the performance assessment results to our radiologists helped improve overall performance: Approximately 75% of critical radiology results were communicated successfully in 2007, and more than 90% were communicated successfully in 2009
  2. Personnel exposure monitoring Personnel exposure investigation Radiation safety training 3 lead shielding devices Stray Radiation: Horizontal Profile 1 m 0.25 mGy/hr 0.5 1 4 2 8 15 30 60 90 120 150 180 180 150 120 90 60 30 Personal Shielding Devices Proper fit is critical if 2 layers are needed to meet 0.5 mm lead-equivalen
  3. Where regulations do not require individual personnel monitoring, it may be valuable to monitor the practice through monitoring one or more individuals from time to time. Further information: EUROPEAN COMMISSION, European Guidelines on Radiation Protection in Dental Radiology, RP 136, Luxembourg (2004)
  4. A radiation safety powerpoint is available on the IDPH website. 3. Train staff on the use of the x-ray equipment and how to reduce radiation exposure. 4. Monitor and retrain staff on safe radiation safety practices, as appropriate. Personal monitoring devices may be returned to the provider company for reading on
  5. ation of materials such.
  6. escent dosimeters (TLDs) and films badges are wearable devices that measure ionizing radiation exposure levels. These instruments are often worn by personnel near the torso as this represents the primary location of body mass and organs, but they may also be attached to objects

Radiation safety program - SlideShar

Film dosimeters are used to measure radiation exposure to workers to monitor radiation safety and ensuring that they receive doses below the appropriate limit.. Film badges are the cheapest and most common monitoring device. They consist of a small case with a piece of film situated between filters Monitor real-time coal dust exposure with a respirable, personal dust monitor designed specifically for U.S. based mining applications. The Thermo Scientific™ PDM3700 Personal Dust Monitor is equipped with waterproof battery protection, PC-based software for data downloading and reporting, integral charger with download and station for PC interface detection / monitoring device for personal protective equipment (Section 6.2), and all The operations level responder assigned to perform air monitoring and sampling shall be that person, competent at the operations level, who is assigned to implement air monitoring and sampling operations at hazardous materials / WMD incidents Regular monitoring of hospital area and radiation workers is mandatory to assess the quality of radiation safety. Records should be maintained to identify the quality and quantity of radioactive waste generated and the mode of its disposal. Radiation Safety officer plays a key role in the waste disposal operations

Point-of-care (POC) coagulation monitoring devices assessing the viscoelastic properties of whole blood, i.e., thrombelastography (TEG®), rotation thrombelastometry (ROTEM®), and Sonoclot® analysis may overcome several limitations of routine coagulation tests. 3,4 Blood is analyzed at the bedside and not necessarily in the central laboratory. Scientific data 2. Radiation types 3. RF Sources -We encounter daily 4. Tower types Slide 7 4. (b) Communication Tower (VHF/UHF) 4 (c) Cellular Tower / Access Points Safety limits - Towers Personal (Proximity) devices Safety Limits - Proximity devices Recommendations - 1 Recommendations -

HIMSS 2017 | Philips Healthcare

Personal Radiation Monitoring Devices for Radiologic

occupationally exposed to radiation should be instructed in the following: 1. Types of individual monitoring devices used and exchange frequency. 2. Use of control badges. 3. Instructions to employees on proper use of individual monitoring devices, including consequences of deceptive exposure of the device. 4 Radiation safety monitoring equipment . Radiation monitoring equipment must be used to measure radiation doses. This equipment includes personal dosimeters, direct reading dosimeters, personal alarming dosimeters and radiation survey meters. Personal dosimeters • Personal dosimeters are passive dose-measuring equipment; the most commonl

COMMUNICATING RADIATION RISKS IN PAEDIATRIC IMAGING - InformatIon to support healthcare dIscussIons about benefIt and rIsk / 29 Chapter 2: Radiation protection concepts and principles New health technologies and medical devices using ionizing radiation have led to major improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of human disease Radiation Professional (this is to add Radiation Professional who is to be nominated as RSO) You are required to add Operator and Medical practitioner in the type Radiation Worker. In the form for adding Radiation Worker, • Provide required personal information of employee viz. Title, Name, Gender and Date of Birt With radiation measurement settings, the goal is to monitor the radioactivity itself, to be aware of fluctuations, boundaries, etc. With radiation protection, the goal is monitoring people. Radiation dosimetry is the most common example of this, with radiation badges being worn by medical personnel, nuclear industry workers, and many other. The Model 901 Key Chain Radiation Detector for Upper-Range Radiation is an effective and easy to use system for detecting dangerous levels of radiation. More than just a radiation detector, the NukAlert™ is a patented personal radiation meter, monitor and alarm. Small enough to attach to a key chain, the device operates non-stop, 24/7 and. LANDAUER provides integrated radiation safety products, dosimetry solutions, and medical physics consulting. For over 65 years LANDAUER has provided unparalleled expertise and client support

Radiation Detection and Survey Devices - Radiation

Thermoluminescent dosimeter Radiology Reference Article

Remote or wearable patient monitoring devices include (1) non-invasive remote monitoring devices that measure or detect common physiological parameters and, (2) non-invasive monitoring devices. • Incidents involving radiation exposure should be reported immediately • Radiography equipment contains large gamma sources; exclusion zones should be respected when this equipment is in use. Be on the lookout for exclusion zones and be aware of procedures in place involving this equipment Personal monitoring equipment Monitoring devices. A variety of labels are used to differentiate clean and potentially contaminated surfaces and devices, and radiation machines. 3.9 Personnel Monitoring. The purpose of personnel monitoring is to provide early notice if your exposure is not below the limits and ALARA. The monitoring program also provides a permanent record of your exposure Personnel monitoring devices are needed to record and control whole-body exposures to ensure occupational limits are not exceeded in accordance with the ICRP recommendations (Appendix II of this Safety Code). For external dose monitoring purposes, devices should be worn on the clothing closest to the body either at the waist or chest level

The change to SI units in radiation monitoring as well as the introduction of new operational quantities in ICRU Reports 39, 43, 47 and 51 [2-5] make it additionally important that Ref. [1] be revised to reflect all these changes. In assessing whether a particular radiation monitoring instrument is adequat Mobile phones have a large spectrum of applications, aiding in risk prevention and improving health and wellbeing of their owners. So far, however, they have not been used for direct assessment of personal exposure to air pollution. In this study, we comprehensively evaluated the first, and the only available, mobile phone—BROAD Life—equipped with air pollution sensors (PM2.5 and VOC), to.

RF Safety. Although Amateur Radio is basically a safe activity, in recent years there has been considerable discussion and concern about the possible hazards of electromagnetic radiation (EMR), including both RF energy and power frequency (50-60 Hz) electromagnetic fields. Extensive research on this topic is underway in many countries Radiology is now the key diagnostic tool for many diseases and has an important role in monitoring treatment and predicting outcome. It has a number of imaging modalities in its armamentarium which have differing physical principles of varying complexity Scintillation Detector. A scintillation detector is often portable. The scintillation detector is not as versatile as the GM meter, although it can be used to look for contamination from some radioactive materials. The scintillation detector 's active portion for detecting radioactivity is a solid crystal (that is the scintillator) with which the radioactive emission must interact

A basic diagnostic imaging quality assurance program is a regulatory requirement in many provinces Footnote 1, Footnote 2 Footnote 3 Footnote 4 Footnote 5 and in federal institutions. Footnote 10 An ineffective quality assurance program can lead to poor quality radiograms that can impair diagnosis, increase operating costs and contribute to unnecessary radiation exposure to both patients and. Ionizing radiation - hazard symbol. Radiation dosimetry is the measurement, calculation and assessment of the absorbed doses and assigning those doses to individuals. It is the science and practice that attempts to quantitatively relate specific measures made in a radiation field to chemical and/or biological changes that the radiation would produce in a target diagnostic radiology procedure as long as she is wearing a lead apron. It would be prudent for pregnant staff to wear a personal radiation monitor (TLD or similar device) under the apron at abdominal level to monitor any radiation received under the apron. 33. Use of an additional dosimeter has consistently shown that exposures to the fetus ar Ex post facto reformation of facial CT images in a 19-year-old woman. (a) Axial CT image obtained at the level of the alveolar process of the maxilla shows a nonerupted left maxillary canine (arrow).(b) Dental panoramic curved planar reformatted CT image created to prepare for surgical and orthodontic eruption shows the contour lines of the jaw, which were added with software (TeraRecon, San. Personal Monitoring. Individuals who regularly work in controlled areas or those who work full time in supervised areas should wear personal dosimeters to have their doses monitored on a regular basis. Individual monitoring is also used to verify the effectiveness of radiation control practices in the workplace

Personal radiation monitoring - Information for employers

Air Monitoring Equipment. 12/1/16. Quick Tips #231. When workers are exposed to hazardous materials, it's important to make sure they are not overexposed - which is why air monitoring is an important part of any safety program. This document discusses the various types of available air monitoring equipment and defines some basic terms XPowerPoint is a Powerful PPT Search Engine which will help you to search for PowerPoint Presentations all over the world whether you need them for your assignment or business. XPowerPoint PPT search engine is especially designed for Doctors and Teachers to help find accurate PowerPoint presentations for their research A film badge dosimeter or film badge is a personal dosimeter used for monitoring cumulative radiation dose due to ionizing radiation.. The badge consists of two parts: photographic film and a holder. The film emulsion is black and white photographic film with varying grain size to affect its sensitivity to incident radiation such as gamma rays, X-rays and beta particles

The principal methods to minimise radiation exposure are to: reduce the time near. increase the distance from. areas where exposure is possible, as well as reducing dust and shielding against gamma exposure. Minimising the spread of dust containing radioactive material, and monitoring for gamma hotspots are basic control methods Detection of alpha radiation is very specific, because alpha particles travel only a few centimeters in air but deposit all their energies along their short paths, thus the amount of energy transferred is very high.. In order to describe principles of detection of alpha radiation, we have to understand the interaction of radiation with matter.Each type particle interacts in a different way.

This section contains PPT medicine themes and free medicine templates for PowerPoint that you can use at hospital to impress your patients with high quality PowerPoint slide design for healthcare presentations with these Powerpoint Templates for Free Download for Microsoft PowerPoint 2003, 2007 and 2010, including medicine backgrounds and free medical powerpoint template the study protocol) in the use of activity monitoring devices in the last five years.ii)To determine if the extent of adherence differs by gender, age, length of study, types of device and/or how the device is worn.iii)To determine if wearing an activity tracking device changes participants' level of physical activity.iv)To determine the perceived acceptability (satisfaction) of participants. d. Assure that individuals whose job requires use of X-rays should be provided individual or personnel monitoring devices. Monitoring devices must be provided if the anticipated annual dose exceeds 10% of the annual occupational dose limits (10CFR20 section 20.1201(a)). Documentation of the basis for not monitoring must be provided upon inspection

Wireless inside-body monitoring is a hot application of wireless network in patients' monitoring. Using WBAN technologies to transmit data from monitoring devices, such as Capsule Endoscope , to outside body, these applications used to monitor the digestive organs such as the small intestine by video or successive image data. The system uses. Aim Guided by the ALARA - As Low As Reasonably Achievable principle in radiation safety, a quality improvement project to optimise the bedside diagnostic imaging process to the best standards of care was conducted over a six month period. The goal was too reduce the radiation hazard opportunities in the neonatal intensive care unit by at least 75% from the existing level at Q2/2015, within 6.

8 Categories of Radiation Dosimeters for Dose and Exposure

Medical Device Data Systems (MDDS) are hardware or software products intended to transfer, store, convert formats, and display medical device data There are devices to track medication and Alzheimer's wandering, activity — or inactivity — in the house, falls and real-time health information. With mobile push-button personal emergency response systems, called PERS, and GPS location tracking, you can monitor parents or aging friends at home, or while they play golf or go on long walks

The Margi projection device is inserted into the expansion slot of the PDA and connected to the LCD projector via the monitor cable. Because this device is plug-and-play and hot-swap supported, the cable connection and power-on sequence can be in any order. To start the presentation, click on the Presenter icon on the PDA main screen . The. The homeland security and defense industry utilizes survey meters, spectroscopic portal monitors, radiation detection monitors, alarming personal radiation detectors and mobile radiation monitors. In nuclear power plants, the popular radiation devices are full body accessories, personal dosimeters, and scintillators The Princeton University Radiation Safety Manual is a handbook of procedures and useful information for the radiation worker who uses either radioactive materials or radiation-producing machines in a laboratory setting at Princeton University. The Manual also reflects the requirements of relevant federal and state regulations y arrest. Neurological monitoring devices are readily available and the anesthesiologist can now monitor the brain during pediatric cardiac surgery. In this review we discuss near-infrared cerebral oximetry, transcranial Doppler ultrasound, and electroencephalographic monitors for use during congenital heart surgery. After review of the basic principles of each monitoring modality, we discuss. Nuclear Shields is a radiation shielding manufacturer with over 40 years of experience and is part of the Van Mullekom Group which was founded in The Netherlands in 1978. The company is privately owned and has factories and offices in the USA, Australia and The Netherlands. Read more

Quality Initiatives: Key Performance Indicators for

Industrial Industrial Radiographic Radiographic Equipment Equipment Radiation safety equipment: Personal monitoring instruments: The dose monitoring instruments, are small devices, designed to be worn by an individual radiographer to measure the exposure received by them, Examples of these instruments are Other specialised personal monitoring devices are available for monitoring the radiation dose received by a person if there is a possibility of exposure to neutron radiation. 2.3 Photographic film badge, TLD and OSD personal monitoring devices can be obtained from an organisation that is approved by the Regulatory Authority to offer a personal. 5.10 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) 13 5.11 Biosafety Cabinets/Culture Hoods 14 5.12 Fume Hoods 14 5.13 Facility Maintenance and Renovation 14 5.14 Equipment Service and Surplus 14 5.15 Calibration Requirements for Radiation Monitoring Instrument 14 5.16 Calibration Services for Radiation Monitoring Instrument 1

E. The mechanism to Reset alarm default settings between patients differs per monitor/device brand and model. 1. For Phillips multiparameter monitors, the patient will be discharged and the monitor placed in monitor standby between patients. 2. For all monitors other than Phillips, at patient discharge or transfer, the bedsid Personal Radiation Monitoring for Occupationally-Exposed Staff. The Instadose+ dosimeter, with SmartMonitoring TM technology, is a digital radiation monitoring device that is transforming how staff are monitored and safeguarded from radiation over-exposure.. INSTANTaccess to real-time, on-demand dose reads and measurement data.Featuring Bluetooth Technology to quickly, easily, remotely.

When first responders arrive on a scene of an accident, natural disaster, or terrorist attack, identifying the radiological risk is a critical step in the first minutes of characterizing a scene. Mirion's UltraRadiac-Plus device is the STANDARD in personal radiation monitors for firefighters, law enforcement, HAZMAT teams, paramedics, and others radioactive materials or radiation devices are responsible for knowing and adhering to applicable requirements. Failure of any individual to comply with requirements can jeopardize the investigation, the laboratory, and the institution. This guidance document provides an orientation on ionizing radiation, an Present portable technologies that measure personal UV radiation are usually based on miniaturized electronic components with power supply. 5 These dosimeters consist of a photodiode detector that generates digital signals that represent the irradiance. 6 However, individual calibration of device and optimal alignment of the sensor to the. Mobile devices (smartphones, tablets, etc.) have become key methods of communication, data access and data sharing for the population in the past decade. The technological capabilities of these devices have expanded very rapidly; for example, their in-built cameras have largely replaced conventional cameras. Their processing power is often sufficient to handle the large data sets of radiology. 2021 Scope -The scope of the Radioactive Materials Management Plan has not changed for . 2020 Performance - The Joint Commission (TJC) Standard HRP.7 requires hospitals to have an informed consent process for human clinical research subjects. Accordingly, our Institutional Review Board (IRB) require

Radiation protection of staff in dental radiology IAE

Personal monitoring definition of personal monitoring by

Wearable devices have been developed to do cardiovascular monitoring and enable mHealth applications in cardiac patients. Low-power wearable ECG monitoring systems have been developed (Winokur, Delano, & Sodini, 2013). Some wearable devices can monitor heart rate variability (HRV) Stephen Balter. is a Clinical Professor of Radiology and Medicine at Columbia University. He earned an MS in Radiological Physics and a PhD in Experimental Physics. He is certified in Radiological Physics by the American Board of Radiology and licensed by New York State in Diagnostic Imaging, Radiation Therapy Physics, and Medical Health Physics Radiation Detection. The identiFINDER R-series are field-trusted, handheld radiation detectors that quickly locate and measure radioactive sources with confidence. They deliver rapid radioisotope identification to reduce time to action and expedite response measures. The next generation of the world's most deployed RID - the FLIR identiFINDER.

TLD and Film Badges Selection Guide Engineering36

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) is last choice in radiation protection methods. •PPE is used to reduce radiological risk, i.e. the probability of Implementation of suitable PPE exposure and/or the impact of any accidental radiation exposure. •PPE must be used in conjunction with other hazards and risks controls Preface. This regulatory document is part of the CNSC's Nuclear Substances and Radiation Devices series of regulatory documents. The full list of regulatory document series is included at the end of this document and can also be found on the CNSC's website.. Regulatory document REGDOC-1.6.2, Developing and Implementing an Effective Radiation Protection Program for Nuclear Substances and. radiation physics, protective equipment, and the features of each imaging system, operators and staff can capitalize on opportunities for radiation protection while minimizing ergonomic strain. Practicing and promoting a culture of radiation safety can help fluoroscopy operators and staff enjoy long, productive careers helping patients

Video: Film dosimeter Radiology Reference Article Radiopaedia

The Radiation Safety Short Course (RSSC) and RSSC assessment in myTraining will evaluate your mastery of the content in this course. The RSSC assessment contains seven sections, and you must receive a score of 80% on each section before requesting the Statement of Training and Experience. Please contact Cathy Sharp to gain access to the assessment Personnel monitoring † 2-10, page 14 Life cycle management for radioactive commodities and radiation generating devices † 2-11, page 14 Inventory and accountability † 2-12, page 15 Use and storage † 2-13, page 15 Internal and external program reviews † 2-14, page 1

PDM3700 Personal Dust Monitor - Thermo Fisher Scientifi

Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring is the continuous evaluation of a patient's nervous system during surgery, especially procedures involving the brain and spinal cord. Electrical and electromagnetic sensors connected to the patient via adhesive electrodes or needles transmit information from the nervous system that can be monitored on a computer screen The force of the device's 10-ton magnet is about 30,000 times as powerful as Earth's magnetic field, and 200 times stronger than a common refrigerator magnet. The canister fractured the skull and injured the brain of the young patient, Michael Colombini, of Croton-On-Hudson, N.Y., during the procedure Friday. He died of th SPOT sells affordable satellite safety devices, delivering reliable location-based tracking, messaging and lifesaving S.O.S. technology. SPOT products monitor your location, connecting to emergency responders while out of cellular range A wide range of portable gas detectors offering real-time visibility of your workers' safety status. BW™ Solo, ToxiRAE, MicroRAE and more. Portable gas detectors. Safety, compliance and productivity. Accidental gas leaks pose a considerable threat to properties, environment and human life The deep-dose equivalent, lens-dose equivalent, and shallow-dose equivalent may be assessed from surveys or other radiation measurements for the purpose of demonstrating compliance with the occupational dose limits, if the individual monitoring device was not in the region of highest potential exposure, or the results of individual monitoring.

meters and timers. there are also a variety of devices used for occupational and public dose assessment, including ionization chambers for direct measurements and tlD, osl and film for indirect use, as either personal dosimeters or area monitors (see chapter 24). 21.2.2. Properties of diagnostic radiology dosimeter Radiation standards also limit the amount of radiation emitted to a low level, in this device its radio frequency. Radiation for Medical Treatment. Radiation is utilized in a lot of medical treatments and equipment. Radiation therapy or radiotherapy is a cancer treatment that kills cancer cells and reduces tumors dumped, the lead from these devices can leak into water systems, and the long-term implications obviously aren't healthy. Its become an issue that what should be done when there are toxic materials like monitors or CPUs with lead that shouldn't be in landfill. Every monitor has four to six pounds of lead [8]

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