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Pediatric neutropenia workup

Understand Febrile Neutropenia, Your Risk, and How an Injection Could Help Neutropenia is usually discovered during the workup of a febrile illness. Leukopenia and neutropenia are also often discovered incidentally, as a result of a routine CBC or a CBC performed for an.. •Benign neutropenia of infancy/childhood -Affects 1 in 100,000 children between infancy and 10 years of age -Most common between 3 and 30 months of age -Median duration of neutropenia is 30 months -95% of children recover by 4 years of age •May be associated with other autoimmune disorders, especially in adolescent

Febrile Neutropenia Treatment - Stay At Home Car

The significance of neutropenia is a common query to hematology specialists from primary care physicians. Severe neutropenia is defined as an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) of fewer than 500/mcL (0.5×10 9 /L) and is a common and expected complication of chemotherapy for childhood neoplasms Neutropenia, usually defined as an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) below 1.5 × 10 9 /L (1500/mm 3), encompasses a wide range of diagnoses, from normal variants to life-threatening acquired and congenital disorders

Description. Pediatric Neutropenia Workup Algorithm DOI: 10.1111/ijlh.13210 #Neutropenia #Workup #Algorithm #diagnosis #hematology #Pediatrics #peds Neutropenia is a condition characterized by a depressed neutrophil count. For patients greater than one year of age, it is classified into three stages: Mild= an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) 1000-1500 neutrophils/mm 3 Moderate= ANC 500-1000/mm Understand that neutropenia can arise from acquired or intrinsic conditions. Know which causes of neutropenia are most commonly encountered in childhood. 4. Recognize why disorders of neutrophil production and release from the bone marrow carry more risk for bacterial infection than peripheral neutropenia associated with normal bone marrow. Neutropenia is a rare disorder that causes children to have lower than normal levels of neutrophils, a type of white blood cell that destroys bacteria in the blood and helps protect against infections. Neutropenia can be a very serious condition

Fever and neutropenia (FN) are common compli-cations in children who receive chemotherapy forcancer. Although several guidelines for the man-agement of FN have been developed,1-7none arededicated to children. FN guidelines specificallyfocused on children with cancer are important.8To address this critical gap, we convened a panelof pediatric cancer and infectious disease experts,as well as a patient advocate, to develop anevidence-based guideline for the empiric manage-ment of pediatric FN Neutropenia defined as neutrophil count <1 x 109/L Neutropenia can be seen in up to 6-8% of all infants admitted to NICUs The incidence of neutropenia increases with decreasing birth weight (reported in approximately 3% of term infants weighing >2500g, 13% infants <2500g and up to 38% infants <1000g Summary Neutropenia, usually defined as a blood neutrophil count <1·5 × 10 9 /l, is a common medical problem for children and adults. There are many causes for neutropenia, and at each stage in life the clinical pattern of causes and consequences differs significantly Neutropenia The human body has its own built-in defense system designed to fight off harmful viruses and bacteria that cause infections. One of those defenses is called neutrophil. If neutrophil is depleted, your child can be prone infection Neutropenia is also a common manifestation of bone marrow defects associated with reductions in red bloods cells and platelets, such as aplastic anemia, leukemia, myelodysplasia, megaloblastic anemia due to vitamin B12 or folate deficiency, and the administration of chemotherapy. These disorders are reviewed separately

Among children, neutropenia has a number of causes, including: Inadequate bone marrow production due to other blood disorders such as aplastic anemia or cancer such as leukemia. Response to radiation therapy or chemotherapy, which destroys white cells. When this occurs, it could delay radiation or chemotherapy Neutropenia is a reduction in the blood neutrophil count. If it is severe, the risk and severity of bacterial and fungal infections increase. Focal symptoms of infection may be muted, but fever is present during most serious infections. Diagnosis is by white blood cell count with differential, and evaluation requires identification of the cause Neutropenia is usually diagnosed when a patient presents with fever or recurrent bacterial infections. It may also be diagnosed on routine laboratory work or when a patient is being evaluated for another disorder •Often complex differential diagnosis: neutropenia, Crohn's, SLE, etc.. •Several factors have been proposed as a possible etiology. •Extensive research has focused on immunological factors, but a definitive etiology of RAS has not been conclusive established. RAS Major Minor Herpetiform Less than 1cm Heal without scars Larger than 1c Neutropenia is defined as an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) of less than 1000/μL in infants and less than 1500/μL in older children. The condition is usually discovered during the workup of a..

Background: Febrile neutropenia is one of the major acute side effects of intensive treatment in pediatric cancer, necessitating prompt initiation of empirical broad-spectrum antibiotics. Patients may be classified as low or high risk according some risk factors (duration of neutropenia, depth of neutropenia, type of cancer, state of disease, bone marrow involvement, type of treatment. of Febrile Neutropenia Figure 2 - Antibiotic De-escalation Appendix 1 - Pediatric Oncology triage I. PURPOSE: This algorithm describes the evidence-based approach for the management of high-risk hematology/oncology and hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) patients with fever and neutropenia. II Neutrophils are essential for fighting infection. Neutropenia, or low levels of neutrophils, is a common disorder usually caused by chemotherapy, adverse drug reactions or autoimmune disorders...

To diagnose neutropenia, your child's doctor will take a blood sample to check the levels of each type of blood cell. This is called a complete blood count. Other tests can help us understand why your child has low neutrophils. Depending on your child's symptoms, doctors may Learn more about cyclic neutropenia diagnosis. About treatment for cyclic neutropenia at Children's. Children's Cancer and Blood Disorders program achieves outcomes that rank among the top national programs and cares for more than two-thirds of Minnesota children and adolescents with blood disorders. In the program, families coping with. Neutropenic Fever: Basics. Neutropenia definitions can vary between institutions. [ White, 2014 ] Typical definition = Absolute Neutrophil Count (ANC) < 1500 cell/microL. Severe neutropenia is ANC < 500. Patients receiving chemotherapy are at high risk for morbidity and mortality due to infections The aim of this study was to provide a prospective description of episodes of neutropenia in children to assess its clinical relevance in a general pediatric co [Fortuitously Discovered Neutropenia in Children: Diagnosis and Follow-Up] Arch Pediatr. 2015 Aug;22(8):822-9. doi: 10.1016/j.arcped.2015.05.006..

The gene that is responsible for ethnic neutropenia is identified to be the DARC (Duffy antigen/chemokine receptor) gene. [ 26, 27] Thus, children with the above ethnic backgrounds, if their red.. 155 children with isolated neutropenia are described and then classified as having mild, moderate, severe, and very severe neutropenia. More than half the children described in this article never had a specific diagnosis found for their neutropenia while other children received the diagnosis of viral suppression, auto-immune, and drug-induced. Neutropenia is a deficiency in the number of neutrophils, also known as polymorphonuclear leukocytes, or PMNs. Neutropenia is generally defined as an absolute neutrophil count <1,500/mL. Counts of <500/mL represent severe, life-threatening deficiency. Neutropenia often accompanies other disorders, but here we describe neutropenia when it occurs in isolation or as the predominant characteristic. call (Floating Hospital for Children 617-636-5114). 1. All patients with fever and neutropenia should be admitted to the Floating Hospital for Children. 2. Patients with fever and non-neutropenia can be considered for discharge from the Emergency Department or office after the above described diagnostic workup has been complete prolonged neutropenia ( 10 days); all others should be categorized as IFD low risk (1B) All patients: Consider galactomannan in bronchoalveolar lavage and cerebrospinal fluid to support diagnosis of pulmonary or CNS aspergillosis (2C) In children, do not use -D-glucan testing for clinical decisions until further pediatric evidence has.

Causes of Isolated Neutropenia - Differential Diagnosis

Pediatric Autoimmune Neutropenia Workup: Approach

BACKGROUND: Children with isolated neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count [ANC] <1500/μL) are frequently referred to pediatric hematology and oncology clinics for further diagnostic evaluation. Scant literature exists on interventions and outcomes for isolated neutropenia. We hypothesized that children will have resolution of their neutropenia without the need for intervention(s) by a. Pediatric Neutropenia Introduction Neutropenia is a clinically significant entity due to its association with increased risk of infection. Clinicians tend to differentiate between neutropenia secondary to chemotherapy for the treatment of malignancies and those unrelated to chemotherapy-related bone marrow toxicity. The etiolog and fever episodes in children and adolescents with neutropenia caused by cytotoxic chemotherapy]. Padiatr Padol, 1989. 24(1): p. 33-42.(Retrospective, 49 patients) Miranda-Novales, M.G., et al., Empirical antimicrobial therapy in pediatric patients with neutropenia and fever.netRisk factors for treatment failure. Arch Med Res, 1998. 29(4): p. Abstract. Children presenting with fever and neutropenia (FN) pose unique diagnostic and management challenges. The absence of pediatric-specific guidelines has led physicians to rely on local expertise, interpretation of available data without benefit of national consensus, and extrapolation of adult guidelines for direction

Fever and neutropenia (FN) is a common complication of cancer treatment. In 2012, we published a clinical practice guideline (CPG) focused on the management of FN in children with cancer and in recipients of hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). 1 Like all CPGs, it is important that the systematic reviews that inform the recommendations are timely, typically considered every 5 years. The ANC varies according to age and ethnicity. It is lower in children than in adults. Children <12 months are not considered neutropenic unless the ANC falls below 1000/microlitre or 1 x 10⁹/L. After 10 years of age neutrophil values normally exceed 1500/microlitre or 1.5 x 10⁹/L. Dallman PR. Reference ranges for leukocyte counts in children In children, chronic autoimmune neutropenia and chronic benign (or idiopathic) neutropenia are virtually interchangeable terms because of their common excellent outcomes and the difficulty of distinguishing them diagnostically. 5-10 Antineutrophil antibody tests have little or no diagnostic value (discussed in Diagnosis and management). Common characteristics are summarized in Table 1 Primary autoimmune neutropenia (AIN) is caused by granulocyte-specific autoantibodies and occurs predominantly in infancy. Clinical presentation and diagnosis have not been well established, resulting in burdening diagnostic investigations and unnecessary treatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) Recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of inborn errors of metabolism have improved substantially the prognosis for many of these conditions. This makes it essential that the practicing pediatrician be familiar with the clinical presentation of these disorders. A practical clinical approach to the recognition of inborn errors of metabolism in the young infant is presented in this review

Because the severity and the cause of neutropenia may often be fatal in this patient population and because of the limitations of blood volume available for laboratory testing, a prompt but logical approach to the workup is essential. A thorough history can indicate if immediate assessment is necessary 155 children with isolated neutropenia are described and then classified as having mild, moderate, severe, and very severe neutropenia. More than half the children described in this article never had a specific diagnosis found for their neutropenia while other children received the diagnosis of viral suppression, auto-immune, an

Children who have severe congenital neutropenia have a higher risk of developing blood cancers. These cancers include myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and other types of leukemia. Severe Congenital Neutropenia Diagnosis. Usually, severe congenital neutropenia is diagnosed soon after birth Neutropenia (noo-treh-PEE-nee-eh) is when the blood doesn't have enough of a type of white blood cell. These cells, called neutrophils, fight bacteria . Bacteria are germs that cause infections. Without enough neutrophils, serious infections can happen. Most children with neutropenia need medical care right away if they have any signs of an. Pediatrics. 1999;103(4 pt 1):843-852. 15. National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health. Urinary tract infection in children. Diagnosis, treatment and long-term management. A decrease in the number of circulating neutrophils (both segmented and band forms), strictly defined as an absolute total neutrophil count (ANC) of <1,500/μL in children >1 year of age, <1,000/μL in children <1 year of age, and <5,000/μL in the 1st week of life To calculate ANC, multiply the total WBC count by the percentage of segmented neutrophils and band forms Although the diagnosis of congenital neutropenia includes many disorders of distinct origin and variable prognosis, their treatment is still based on granulocyte colony stimulating factor administration. Understanding the pathogenesis of these forms of neutropenia and their evolution will focus futu

Diagnosis. Often, diagnosis of Neutropenia is difficult. Since it's a very rare condition, its symptoms are frequently assumed and confused with other conditions or diseases. Chemotherapy for Leukemia or other cancers can cause patients, especially children, to become neutropenic Before initiating a major workup, rule out infections and drugs as causes of neutropenia. Fever and neutropenia hospital discharges in children with cancer: A 2012 update. Pediatr Hematol. Autoimmune neutropenia of infancy/childhood is a relatively frequent cause of neutropenia in children: the median age at diagnosis is 7-9 months [Lalezari et al. 1986; Bux et al. 1998; Wang et al. 2009] We examined the use of Pediatric Cancer Specialty Centers (PCSCs) over time and the length of stay (LOS) in pediatric oncology patients with a diagnosis of febrile neutropenia. PCSCs were defined as Children's Oncology Group and California Children's Services designated centers. We performed a retrospective analysis on all discharges of.

Children with cyclic neutropenia are treated at Dana-Farber/Boston Children's Cancer and Blood Disorders Center through our Bone Marrow Failure and Myelodysplastic Syndrome Program, recognized as one of the nation's best pediatric treatment and research programs for bone marrow failure and related conditions The absolute neutrophil count (ANC) is an estimate of the body's ability to fight infections, especially bacterial infections. These test results are often referred to as a patient's counts.. An ANC measures the number of neutrophils in the blood. Neutrophils are a type of white blood cell that kills bacteria Neutropenia. ANC = (total WBC) x (%segs + %bands) Nadir usually occurs 5-10d after chemo. Duration of neutropenia depends on type of cancer treatment. Solid tumor treatments: <5d. Hematologic malignancies: 14d or longer

3. Fax the referral and all records to 503-346-6854 * Referral notes or forms should include: Patient name, date of birth, sex, address and phone numbe How I manage children with neutropenia. Br J Haematol. 2017;178(3):351-363. doi:10.1111/bjh.14677 Kebudi R, Kizilocak H. Febrile Neutropenia in Children with Cancer: Approach to Diagnosis and Treatment

Neutropenia in Pediatric Practice American Academy of

Neutropenia can be caused by: Infections, including hepatitis, tuberculosis, sepsis, or Lyme disease. Medications, including chemotherapy. Chemotherapy is one of the most common causes of neutropenia. Cancer and other blood and/or bone marrow disorders. Deficiencies in vitamins or minerals, such as vitamin B12, folate, or copper Fever and Neutropenia, Pediatric - Acute Care V 1.1 Page 4 of 17 Decision Making Initial Care 1. Fever and neutropenia is a medical emergency. 2. Patients presenting with a possible episode of fever and neutropenia must be triaged appropriately, placed in a separate waiting room/area where possible to minimize the risk o Diagnosis of Neutropenia. Along with the signs and symptoms, neutropenia is primarily diagnosed by obtaining a blood sample from the patient. The normal neutrophil count is above 2.0 and less than 7.5. The following are the types of neutropenia: Mild Neutropenia: 1.0- to 2.0. Moderate Neutropenia: 0.5 to 2.0. Severe Neutropenia: < 0.5

Evaluation and Management of Patients with Isolated

  1. Febrile neutropenia can be caused by viral suppression of bone marrow function. However, given the additional abnormal findings in this patient (ie, elevated inflammatory markers and hepatic mass), timely involvement of pediatric subspecialists and further workup were needed
  2. Definition. Neutropenia (noo-troe-PEE-nee-uh) occurs when you have too few neutrophils, a type of white blood cells. While all white blood cells help your body fight infections, neutrophils are important for fighting certain infections, especially those caused by bacteria. You probably won't know that you have neutropenia
  3. etect neutrophil-bound autoantibodies consisting of both immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgM has better diagnostic value than the detection of circulating autoantibodies. Whole blood (100 μL) was obtained from 50 infants with AIN, 12 infants with transient neutropenia, and 37 control infants. D-GIFT was performed using both fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated antihuman IgG Fc portion monoclonal.
  4. Severe chronic neutropenia is a rare blood disorder that appears to affect males and females in equal numbers. Both children and adults may be affected. Severe cyclic and congenital neutropenia respectively are estimated to affect approximately 0.5 to 1 case per million population in the United States
  5. Oncology. Quiz. Febrile neutropenia in pediatric cancer. Take Quiz. Pediatric cancer treatment effects. Take Quiz. Hemophilia A and cardiovascular problems in children. Take Quiz. Pediatric cancer and risk of CVD
  6. Background: The optimal choice of initial antibiotic therapy for patients with high-risk febrile neutropenia (FN) in children is unclear and varies by the institution on the basis of local antibiograms and epidemiology of specific pathogens. The authors evaluated the appropriateness of antibiotics for the empiric treatment of FN in pediatric patients with cancer in our institution on the basis.
  7. The influence of different fever definitions on diagnostics and treatment after diagnosis of fever in chemotherapy-induced neutropenia in children with cancer. Plos One 13 , e0193227 (2018.

Pediatric Neutropenia Workup Algorithm DOI: 10

Pediatric Neutropenia Learn Pediatric

How to Approach Neutropenia in Childhood American

  1. neutropenia treated at the Gynecology-Pediatrics and Family Medicine Hospital (GP-FMH) No. 31 of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) from July 2014 to August 2018. A thorough search in the registry of clinical files was carried out, locating patients with diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemi
  2. a clinical diagnosis of primary neutropenia or associated syndrome • Carrier identification in individuals with a family history of inherited neutropenia of unknown genetic basis. Gene Specific Sequencing: • regions analyzed. Somatic variants in Confirmation of genetic diagnosis in a patient with neutropenia and in whom ancillary testing o
  3. Neutropenia is a condition marked by a low level of neutrophils, a type of white blood cell. The main role of neutrophils is to fight certain infections caused by viruses or bacteria. Neutrophils do this by surrounding and destroying the bacteria or virus. Neutropenia can make a child more vulnerable to infections

Neutropenia Children's Hospital of Philadelphi

Neutropenic Fever Treatment Usmle

Neutropenia In Childhood Investigation And Referral Guidelin

Leukopenia with neutropenia was first recognized as a racial characteristic by Forbes et al 10 in 1941. He and his coinvestigators found that a small group of healthy black sharecroppers working in the cotton fields of Mississippi had a lower mean WBC and ANC (4.8 × 10 9 /L and 2.3 × 10 9 /L) than a comparable group of white laborers (7.6 × 10 9 /L and 4.6 × 10 9 /L) Autoimmune Neutropenia. In neutropenic children aged 6 months to 4 years the presence of neutrophil specific antibodies can result in increased destruction of the body's own neutrophils. This process, termed autoimmune neutropenia, is the most common cause for neutropenia of this age group. Although these infants often have very low absolute. Children with immune neutropenia may have a compensatory monocytosis accompanying severe neutropenia. Antineutrophil antibodies: these are required to detect an immune neutropenia. This is especially likely if a previously healthy infant has a first episode of neutropenia at ≥6 months of age, or if there is a family history of autoimmune.

Video: How I manage children with neutropenia - Dale - 2017

Neutropenia Cook Children'

  1. Esbenshade AJ, Zhao Z, Aftandilian C, et al: Multisite external validation of a risk prediction model for the diagnosis of blood stream infections in febrile pediatric oncology patients without severe neutropenia. Cancer, 201
  2. Differential Diagnosis. Neutropenia can be differentiated according to the etiology as either immunoglobulin disorders, complements system disorders, or disorder of neutrophil formation. Primary AIN is seen in the pediatric population with congenital disorders like chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD), and.
  3. Mild neutropenia (average ANC 1.9 ± 1.2 in one case series) in 20-50% Normal platelets Differential Diagnosis. The differential diagnosis for anemia due to reduced RBC production (normocytic anemia with reticulocytopenia and without pancytopenia) in children

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Fortunately, the most common reason for neutropenia (low neutrophil count) in children is a viral infection. During the viral infection, the production of neutrophils is reduced, which may result in neutropenia. 1 . When the infection clears, the neutrophil count returns to normal, so your pediatrician may recommend repeating the CBC in a. There are no well-established tests to confirm the diagnosis of immune neutropenia, and it remains largely a diagnosis of exclusion. Primary AIN is primarily seen in children, with an age of onset.

Neutropenia Conditions UCSF Benioff Children's Hospital

  1. Other analyses of pediatric fever and neutropenia have attempted to identify features at presentation that predict bacteremia. Lucas et al. 7 concluded that presentation with signs of septic shock and the diagnosis of leukemia or lymphoma had predictive value, whereas ANC < 100/μL did not
  2. Neutropenia refers to lower-than-normal levels of neutrophils in the blood. A neutrophil (also known as a granulocyte or polymorphonuclear leukocyte) is a type of white blood cell produced in the bone marrow. White blood cells in general, and neutrophils in particular, are important for infection control in the body
  3. Neutropenia is an abnormally low number of white blood cells. These cells are called neutrophils. They help the body fight infection. This article discusses neutropenia in newborns

Neutropenia - Hematology and Oncology - Merck Manuals

Furthermore, diagnosis of bacterial infection may be limited in patients with severe neutropenia since the lack of inflammation may impede detection of pulmonary infiltrates in patients with pneumonia, pyuria in the case of a urinary tract infection, or a discrete abscess in cases of intraabdominal or soft tissue infection. A peculiar infection. Pediatric Febrile Neutropenia. The risk of infection is related to the duration and severity of neutropenia. The prevalence varies widely and estimated to be 12.8% in children between 1- 9 yrs but increases to 17.4% in those aged 10-19 yrs.Attributes that guides the management considerations in FN include: fever in a neutropenia child is.

How I investigate neutropenia - Frater - 2020PPT - Neutropenia in Pediatrics PowerPoint Presentation

Assessment of neutropenia - Diagnosis Approach BMJ Best

Agranulocytosis occurs in about 1% of patients taking clozapine. 3,4 Neutropenia is seen in about 3%. 4 The risk of both agranulocytosis and neutropenia is highest between 6 weeks and 18 weeks after starting clozapine treatment. 4 Hence, in the United Kingdom and Ireland, weekly FBC monitoring is mandatory for the first 18 weeks, after which it. Sudden neutropenia and emesis in an SGA infant. A 24-year-old G2P1001 African American female at 38.2 weeks of gestation was induced for labor for a fetus with prenatally diagnosed intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). She subsequently delivered via normal spontaneous delivery. The infant initially latched well at the breast, was. Cyclic neutropenia is an autosomal-dominant disease. Multiple family members in each generation can have the disease; sometimes half the members of a family are affected. Neutropenia and its associated infections and risk of death lead to substantial medical care and hospitalization. The cause of cyclic neutropenia is almost always a mutation. IDSA Clinical Practice Guidelines are developed by a panel of experts who perform a systematic review of the available evidence and use the GRADE process to develop evidence-based recommendations to assist practitioners and patients in making decisions about appropriate health care for specific clinical circumstances.. IDSA Clinical Guidance documents are developed based on a comprehensive.

Pediatric Autoimmune Neutropenia: Practice Essentials

Fever and neutropenia is a common complication of the treatment of cancer. The risk of serious bacterial infection is related to the degree and duration of neutropenia. Bacteraemia is diagnosed in up to one-third of children with FN. Key points. Fever and suspected or confirmed neutropenia (FN) is a medical emergency Sarah S. Long, Kathryn M. Edwards, in Principles and Practice of Pediatric Infectious Diseases (Fourth Edition), 2012 Cyclic Neutropenia Epidemiology and Etiology. Cyclic neutropenia is an autosomal dominantly inherited hematologic disorder characterized by regular cycling of the peripheral blood neutrophil count to nadir of <500 cells/mm 3 (usually <200 cells/mm 3), and a symptom complex. Febrile neutropenia is defined as having a neutrophil count of less than 1.0 x10 9 /L and a temperature of 38°C or above on one occasion. Low temperatures < 36. 0 C may also indicate sepsis and the same guidelines should be followed as for febrile neutropenia. Any unwell child or young person who is receiving chemotherapy or radiotherapy.

Management of neutropenia & fever: antibiotic policyClinical Practice Guidelines : Fever and suspected orEvaluation of neutropenia - Diagnosis Approach | BMJ Best

This study aimed to investigate the spectrum of bacterial pathogens and their antimicrobial sensitivity in pediatric patients admitted with febrile neutropenia (FN) and hematologic malignancies.This prospective, cross-sectional study was carried out on 65 children (60% boys, mean age 7.3 5.3 years) with hematologic malignancies and FN hospitalized at the Amir Hematology and Oncology Hospital. Neutropenia is an abnormally low concentration of neutrophils (a type of white blood cell) in the blood. Neutrophils make up the majority of circulating white blood cells and serve as the primary defense against infections by destroying bacteria, bacterial fragments and immunoglobulin-bound viruses in the blood. People with neutropenia are more susceptible to bacterial infections and, without. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common occurrence in children. The management and laboratory diagnosis of these infections pose unique challenges that are not encountered in adults. Important factors, such as specimen collection, urinalysis interpretation, culture thresholds, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, require special consideration in children and will be discussed in. In children, the epidemiology is different. Primary autoimmune neutropenia in infancy is the most common cause of neutropenia in children <2 years old. Neonatal alloimmune (immune response to nonself antigens) neutropenia is also a relatively common cause of neutropenia in infants