What level of ecology is concerned with energy flow and nutrient cycling

Energy Flow, Nutrient Cycling, and Ecosystem Resilience Author(s): D. L. DeAngelis This is true both for ecologists concerned with food web or trophic level models involving pop- ulation number, biomass, or energy (e.g., O'Neill 1976, Pimm and Lawton 1977) and for those primarily concerned with modeling of material cycles (e.g., Jor- dan et. Energy Flow: Nutrient Cycling: The transfer of energy in a non-cyclic and linear manner from one trophic level to another through a food chain and food web is known as energy flow. The backward and forward movement of chemical elements and nutrients between organisms and their physical environment in an ecosystem are called nutrient cycling For example, energy flow draws data from micro-meteorology (solar radiation, dry matter production, photosynthetic efficiency) and animal physiology (bioenergetics), while nutrient cycling draws data from analytical chemistry (analyses of plants, animals, their products and their residues)

ECOSYSTEM ECOLOGY - the study of entire ecosystems, including the responses and changes in the community in response to the abiotic components of the ecosystem. This field is concerned with such large-scale topics as energy and nutrient cycling four levels of ecology. organismal, population, community, and ecosystsm concerned with ecosystems and focuses on energy flow and cycling of chemicals among various abiotic and biotic factors. inorganic nutrients. soil structure, pH, and nutrient content play a major role in determining the distribution of plants. acclimation. gradual. Nutrient cycling is one of the most important processes that occur in an ecosystem. The nutrient cycle describes the use, movement, and recycling of nutrients in the environment

Difference Between Energy Flow and Nutrient Cycling

Energy flow and nutrient cycling in ecosystems

  1. ed through a quantitative consideration of energy flow and nutrient cycling. Major food sources are identified and then food webs evaluated in terms of biomass, production, consumption, and energy flow, beginning with primary food sources and ending with top predators
  2. Ecosystem processes, such as primary production, pedogenesis (the formation of soil), nutrient cycling, and various niche construction activities, regulate the flux of energy and matter through an environment. These processes are sustained by organisms with specific life-history traits
  3. At the level of an ecosystem, ecology puts all of them together to understand how the system operates as a unit. Thus, ecosystem ecology would be more concerned about energy flow and nutrient cycles than about individual species
  4. nutrient recycling and continued availability of critical or limiting nutrients. Ecosystem management must necessarily be concerned with identification and regulation of those factors most important in controlling the efficiency of energy flow and nutrient cycling
  5. Finally, (4) ecosystem ecology addresses questions that concern energy flow and the cycling of chemicals, i.e. what processes recycle vital chemical elements, like nitrogen for both biotic and.
  6. eral nutrients is cyclic. Mineral cycles include the carbon cycle, sulfur cycle, nitrogen cycle, water cycle, phosphorus cycle, oxygen cycle, among others that continually recycle along with other

Ecosystem Dynamics. An ecosystem is a community of living organisms (plants, animals, and microbes) existing in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment (air, water, and mineral soil), interacting as a system. These biotic and abiotic components are linked together through nutrient cycles and energy flows Production Ecology: Deals with energy flow & nutrient cycling within ecosystems. Radiation Ecology (Radioecology) : Concerned with effects of radioactive materials on both living systems as well as on pathways through which they are dispersed, including dispersal through abiotic environment An ecosystem is a dynamic system characterized by energy flow and nutrient cycling. Substances constantly flow through it and there are sufficient supplies of energy within the ecosystem to enable.. Ecosystem ecology is an inherently interdisciplinary field of study. An individual ecosystem is composed of populations of organisms, interacting within communities, and contributing to the cycling of nutrients and the flow of energy. The ecosystem is the principal unit of study in ecosystem ecology Standing state: the sum nutrients, for example, carbon, calcium, phosphorus, nitrogen, and so on present in soil at any given time. Nutrient cycling: The development of nutrient components through the different part of an ecosystem is called nutrient cycling. Alternate name of nutrient cycling is Biogeochemical Cycle

Learn vocabulary ecology ecosystem chapter 55 with free interactive flashcards. Choose from 500 different sets of vocabulary ecology ecosystem chapter 55 flashcards on Quizlet It occupies a certain functional niche, related to its role in energy flow and nutrient cycling. Both the environment and the amount of energy fixation in any given ecosystem are limited. When a population reaches the limits imposed by the ecosystem, its numbers must stabilize or, failing this, decline from disease, starvation, strife, low.

(See community ecology: Trophic pyramids and the flow of energy; biosphere: The flow of energy and nutrient cycling.) The study of both energy flow and nutrient cycling was stimulated by the development of new materials and techniques—radioisotope tracers, microcalorimetry, computer science, and applied mathematics—that enabled ecologists. View Ecology Lecture - Ecosystem(1).ppt from BIO 120 at Towson University. Ecosystem Ecology Concerned with the passage of energy and nutrients through communities and what effects energy and

Chapter 18 Biology Flashcards Quizle

An important branch of ecology (often called synecology or ecosystem ecology) is concerned with analyzing the flow of trophic energy through ecosystems, using distinctions such as herbivores (animals eating plants) or carnivores (animals eating other animals, which may be subdivided into several levels, depending on their prey) and analyzing. Unit Learning Targets: Follow links for help with these targets. LT 1: I can differentiate and give examples of abiotic and biotic components of an ecosystem.; LT 2: I can identify how energy is stored in ecosystems (in what types of molecules); LT 3: I can describe how energy is transferred through ecosystems and account for energy lost as heat (how much past on from one trophic level to the. 4. In most ecosystems, all the pyramids of number, energy and biomass are upright. It indicates that. (a) Producers are more in number and biomass than the herbivores. (b) Herbivores are less in number and biomass than the carnivores. (c) Energy at a lower tropic level is always more than at a higher level. Choose the correct option The purpose of this introduction to the symposium The Micro and Macro of Nutrient Effects in Animal Physiology and Ecology is to briefly review and highlight recent research that has dramatically advanced our understanding of how nutrients in their varied forms profoundly affect and shape ecological and evolutionary processes

Ecological processes such as primary production, respiration, energy, carbon and nutrient flow through food webs, reproduction, and decomposition are represented as rates of change, which requires repeated measurement over time. This is difficult to achieve for many ecosystems at a local scale and even more difficult at the national scale Nutrient Cycling.The availability and transfer of nutrients constitutes a second indispensable function of ecological systems. Essential nutrients (e.g., carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, etc.) form an integral component of biochemical processes and metabolic pathways within organisms which directly influence the initial capture and flow of energy through the system (Odum 1971, Wilkinson and. ecology is mainly concerned with the dynamics, evolution, diversity and late the flow of energy, the structure of the food web and the cycling of matter dynamics and nutrient cycling, thus affecting ecosystem functioning. This part of LINKECOL has the following aims: Robert G. Wetzel, in Algal Ecology, 1996 I. INTRODUCTION Nutrient cycling implies by definition that nutrients pass among different components of a cell, community, or ecosystem and can be cycled and reutilized by some of these components. It is essential to quantify the rates at which nutrients are assimilated, transferred among biota, and released for subsequent reassimilation The ability to measure energy flows and nutrient cycling by means of radioactive tracers and to analyze large amounts of data with computers permitted the development system ecology. Systems ecology is a relatively new ecological discipline which studies interaction of human population with environment

Hence, introduction of the detritus food chain will stabilize energy flow and nutrient cycling in the agroecosystem. Crop residues are used for cooking, energy loss rate coming up to about 90% (Niu, 1985) and N loss rate going up to 100% (Zhejiang Agricultural Univer- sity, 1979) PART IV. EVOLUTION AND ECOLOGY 15. Ecosystem Dynamics. The Flow of Energy and Matter 15.4. The Cycling of Materials in Ecosystems—Biogeochemical Cycles. Except for small amounts of matter added to the Earth from cosmic dust and meteorites, the amount of matter that makes up the Earth is essentially constant Sun's Role Light, warmth, & energy for photosynthesis Powers cycling of matter Drives the climate and weather systems Most of light to earth is ultraviolet -~28% reflected back into space by clouds, dust, and land -~72% warms air & land, evaporates water, generates winds and global air & water current

Flow of energy in the ecosystem is herbivores and the carnivores at their progressive trophic levels are concerned. There is an abatement in the quantity of people from the lower to the higher trophic levels. Nutrient cycling: The development of nutrient components through the different part of an ecosystem is called nutrient cycling The process of energy flow is the focus of this session as the interactions between producers, consumers, and decomposers are examined. Session 8 Material Cycles in Ecosystems Studying an ecosystem involves looking at interactions between living things as well as the nonliving environment that surrounds them

This list of concepts is divided into seven groups: individuals, populations, communities, ecosystems, landscapes, biomes, and biosphere. Within each group is a set of related concepts, e.g. trophic levels, predation, food chain/web, energy flow, nutrient cycling, regulators. Organisms Abiotic and biotic features of the environmen Energy flow and nutrient cycling in streams, rivers and lakes, with an emphasis on understanding the control of primary productivity, decomposition and community structure by both hydrologic and biotic drivers. Role of aquatic ecosystems in carbon and nitrogen budgets at watershed, regional, and global scales and still important issues (e.g., competition, energy flow, predation, nutrient cycling) (May and Seger 1986, Cherret 1988, Odum 1992, Thompson et al. 2001). It may be that the sum of ecological science is not open to universal statements because of the wide range of organiza-tional,spatial,and temporal phenomena,as well as the shee

Linking these constituents together are two major forces: the flow of energy through the ecosystem, and the cycling of nutrients within the ecosystem. The fundamental source of energy in almost all ecosystems is radiant energy from the sun. The energy of sunlight is used by the ecosystem's autotrophic, or self-sustaining, organisms Ecosystem ecology examines the energy flow and cycling of chemicals among the various abiotic and biotic components. an ecosystem consists of all the organisms living in a community as well as all the abiotic factors with which they interact

Nutrient Cycles in the Environmen

Ecosystem function - The processes and interactions that operate within an ecosystem, such as energy flow, nutrient cycling, filtering and buffering of contaminants, and regulation of populations. Ecosystem services - Ecological processes or functions having monetary or non-monetary value to individuals or society at large Energy Flow and Nutrient Recycling • Ecosystems sustained through: - One-way energy flow from the sun - Nutrient recycling Abiotic chemicals (carbon dioxide, oxygen, nitrogen, minerals) Decomposers (bacteria, fungi) Consumers (herbivores, carnivores) Producers (plants) Solar energy Heat Heat Heat Heat Heat Fig. 3-7, p. 45 Main components.

This course covers basic concepts of ecosystem restoration, including development of energy flow and nutrient cycles, soil formation, mechanisms of species dispersal and colonization, and mutualistic relationships. SPEA-E 535 International Environmental Policy (3 cr. Energy is continually input into an ecosystem in the form of light energy, and some energy is lost with each transfer to a higher trophic level. Nutrients, on the other hand, are recycled within an ecosystem, and their supply normally limits biological activity. So, energy flows, elements cycle. Energy is moved through an ecosystem via a food. Simple energy flow and nutrient cycling diagram lor an ecosystem with energy flow as solid lines and nutrient cycles as dashed lines. In lentic and lotic systems, the flow of energy through the. Introduction - Energy Flows and Material Cycling Today we will explore some of the multiple topics related to the flow of energy in ecosystems. Energy is used up and lost as heat as it moves through ecosystems, and new energy is continually added to the earth in the form of solar radiation How does carbon flow through ecosystems. Carbon enters the biotic part of the ecosystem through the process of photosynthesis in which carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and water react to produce glucose C6H12O6 and oxygen. Energy Flow in Ecosystem Biogeochemical Cycles

7. in an ecosystem, which one shows one-way passage (a) free energy (b) carbon (c) nitrogen (d) potassium. Answer and Explanation: 7. (a): The behaviour of energy in ecosystem can be termed energy flow due to unidirectional flow of energy, Flow of energy is only in one direction i.e., from solar radiation —> producers —> heribivorous. These shifts in species composition and diversity yield altered trophic structure, energy flow pathways, and corresponding ecosystem services such as production, organic matter cycling and organic C burial. Increasingly the influences of nature and humans interact to generate or exacerbate hypoxia Ecology is a subject which studies the interactions among organisms and between the organism and its physical (abiotic) environment. Ecology is basically concerned with four levels of biological organisation - organisms, populations, communities and biomes. We have to focus on the first two levels of biological organisation in this chapter of. An ecosystem is such a system that includes an ecological community of organisms together with the physical environment, interacting as a unit. Ecosystems are characterized by flow of energy through food webs, production and degradation of organic matter, and transformation and cycling of nutrient elements

While some ecologists were studying the dynamics of communities and populations, others were concerned with energy budgets. In 1920 August Thienemann, a German freshwater biologist, introduced the concept of trophic, or feeding, levels (see trophic level), by which the energy of food is transferred through a series of organisms, from green plants (the producers) up to several levels of animals. Ecosystem processes, such as primary production, nutrient cycling, and niche construction, regulate the flux of energy and matter through an environment. Ecosystems have biophysical feedback mechanisms that moderate processes acting on living ( biotic ) and non-living ( abiotic ) components of the planet 1 4 6 Energy Flow Worksheet PDST April 18th, 2019 - Feeding allows in an ecosystem Energy flow in the ecosystem Food Chain Is a flow diagram that begins with a and shows how is passed through a series of Name the sun as the primary source of energy Name feeding as the pathway of energy 3 / Metabolic theory and taxonomic identity predict nutrient recycling in a diverse food web Jacob Edward Allgeiera,1, Seth J. Wengerb, Amy D. Rosemondb, Daniel E. Schindlera, and Craig A. Laymanc aSchool of Aquatic and Fisheries Science, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98105; bOdum School of Ecology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602; and cDepartment of Applied Ecology, North Carolina.

Biology Test 4 - George Flashcards Quizle

biology. Alternative Title: energy transfer. trophic pyramid. Energy flow, heat loss, and the relative amount of biomass occurring at various trophic levels within a generalized land ecosystem. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ecosystem energy transfer. Figure 2: Transfer of energy through an ecosystem. At each trophic level only a small. This includes.. The range of tolerance for various physical and chemical condisitons The types of resources it uses, such as food or nutrient requirements How it interacts with other living and nonliving components of the ecosystems in which it is found The role it plays in the flow of energy and cycling of matter in an ecosystem. (p

View SOORAJ evs notes.pdf from EVS CHY1007 at VIT University Vellore. Module 1 Environment and Ecosystem Key environmental problems, their basic causes and sustainable solutions. IPA The carbon cycle. The carbon cycle is most easily studied as two interconnected subcycles: One dealing with rapid carbon exchange among living organisms. One dealing with long-term cycling of carbon through geologic processes. Although we will look at them separately, it's important to realize these cycles are linked This course covers ecosystem theory, nutrient cycling, energy flow, and related global environmental topics including acid rain, greenhouse effect, climate change and mercury pollution. The content and methods of modern ecosystems research are emphasized. Lab activities may include field investigations, lab experiments, and computer modeling. Intended for biology, environmental science, and.

Functions of Ecosystem Ecological succession or ecosystem development (previous post) Homeostasis (or cybernetic) or feedback control mechanisms (previous post) Energy flow through the food chain Nutrient cycling (biogeochemical cycles) (next post) Energy Flow Through an Ecosystem - Trophic Levels (Trophe = Nourishment) A trophic level is the

This equilibrium will be broken if one nutrient is insufficient or in excess, which may affect the eco process and the primary productivity. In this case the element concerned is considered as the limiting nutrient for the ecosystem development. Primary productivity is the rate of capture of solar energy or biomass production of the producers The ecosystem, or ecological system, is considered to be a unit of biological organization made up of all of the organisms in a given area (that is, community) interacting with the physical enviroment so that a flow of energy leads to characteristic trophic structure and material cycles within the system. It is the purpose of this article to. Earthworms influence (and benefit) the soil ecosystem in a number of ways: Recycling organic material: Earthworms, along with bacteria and fungi, decompose organic material. Most people know about earthworms and compost, but earthworms do the same in pasture soils, decomposing dung and plant litter and processing 2-20 tonnes of organic matter per hectare each year, and recycling leaf litter.

I have to prepare a diagram of an ecosystem (e.g., boreal forest, river, coastal rain forest, marine, grasslands) and include all components like energy flow, nutrient cycling, the mineral cycle, and the water cycle as well as other terminology Although they are important processes, they are sub-processes of energy flow and would not be at the same relative level as the basic ecological functions of energy flow, nutrient cycling and retention, soil development and retention, predation and herbivory, and natural disturbances Nutrient cycling is bio-mediated, meaning that the act of denitrification is occurring at the microbial level. Both biotic (living organisms) and abiotic (physical, non-living) factors play a role in affecting the way nutrients are processed and where they are stored

Semester 1 Bio: Ecology Flashcards Quizle

For example, nutrient cycling and energy flows are closely related to soil enzymes produced by microbes and plants (Stark et al., 2014), and enzymatic activity is highly influenced by environmental factors such as soil pH, nutrient availability and soil water content (Paul & Clark, 1989). By altering these factors, microplastics may potentially. Ecosystem processes, such as primary production, pedogenesis, nutrient cycling, and various niche construction activities, regulate the flux of energy and matter through an environment. These processes are sustained by organisms with specific life history traits, and the variety of organisms is called biodiversity Ecosystem ecology is the integrated study of living and non-living components of ecosystems and their interactions within an ecosystem framework. This science examines how ecosystems work and relates this to their components such as chemicals, be.. Energy In The Ecosystem Webquest Key energy flow through food chains food webs and ecosystems, ecology webquest pc answer key in pdf format from the best user guide database energy flow and nutrient cycles biogeochemical cycles, this webquest will be used to wrap up level approximately of the useful energy is lost b what is the benefit to On the value of soil resources in the context of natural capital and ecosystem service delivery . × Close Log In. Log In with Facebook Log In with Google. Sign Up with Apple. or. Email: Password: Remember me on this computer. or reset password. Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link..

One way is to start with the traditional circular flow diagram used in most economics courses to depict the economic process. circular flow a diagram that indicates the ways resources, such as goods, money, waste, and energy, move through an economy or ecosystem. The Circular Flow Model Figure 1.1 shows a simplified model of relationships. Ecosystem ecology is the study of how the flow of energy and matter in large scale living systems. Ecosystem ecology is concerned with how nutrients enter, are recycled within, and leave the system; with what inputs of energy do the work in the system, how that energy is passed from one part of the system to another, and how energy leaves the. energy flow and mineral cycling. LEVELS OF ORGANISATIONS IN ECOLOGY The main levels of organisation of ecology are six and are as follows. therefore completely independent units as far as energy and nutrient dynamics are concerned. e.g: A mat of lichen on a cow dung pad ecosystems. Function also includes system-level processes, such as the cycling of nutrients and flow of energy among the components of an ecosystem. A major goal of modern ecology is to understand how ecological systems function, so that their behavior can be predicted, and so that they can be managed for long-term human benefit Lesson 10ENERGY FLOW IN THE ECOSYSTEM AND ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION. 10.1 Ecosystem Functioning. To understand clearly the nature of the ecosystem, its function must be thoroughly investigated. The function of the ecosystem is to allow flow of energy and cycling of materials which ensures stability of the system and continuity of life

Ecology Test Three Flashcards Quizle

Ecosystem ecology: is concerned with ecosystems, all the abiotic factors in addition to the community of species in a certain area; focuses on energy flow and the cycling of chemicals among the various abiotic and biotic factors; 9. The biosphere is: the global ecosystem; the sum of all the planet's ecosystems; all of life and where it lives. Ecosystem function is the physical, chemical, and biological processes or attributes that contribute to the self-maintenance of the ecosystem, including energy flow, nutrient cycling, filtering, buffering of contaminants, and regulation of populations , which is the expression of the structure accounted for in an ecosystem approach. The interactions between bivalves, carbon flow and nutrient cycling are complex, and understanding the magnitude of direct and feedback interactions between cultured populations and phytoplankton, particulate organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon and nutrient dynamics is crucial for understandin Energy flow, Food chain, Diversity pattern in time and space, Nutrient of biogeochemical cycles, Development and evolution, Control or cybernetics. With the help of the following flow chart, we can interpret the functional aspect, an ecosystem, or the interactions between various components, which involve the flow of energy, and cycling of.

Nutrient Cycling - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

Some types of cyanobacteria have evolved to make biomolecules without the use of nitrogen D. Certain types of cyanobacteria are able to fix nitrogen. If organic nitrogen in the water is low, they are still able to access the nutrient through fixations 24. (4 pts) Correctly label the fluxes in the ecosystem-level carbon cycle below oo Australian Journal of Ecology (1998) 23, 4 1 - 5 2 Hierarchy, spatial configuration, and nutrient cycling in a desert stream STUART G. FISHER, NANCY B. GRIMM, EUGENIA MARTI AND ROSA GOMEZ Department of Zoology, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1501, USA Abstract Recent studies of nutrient cycling in Sycamore Creek in Arizona, USA, sug- gest that a thorough understanding requires. Ecosystem ecology studies energy flow and cycling of chemicals among the various abiotic and biotic components. A landscape or seascape consists of several different ecosystems linked by exchanges of energy, materials, and organisms. Landscape ecology deals with arrays of ecosystems and their arrangement in a geographic region Cycling of nutrients, including nitrogen and phosphorus, is one of the ecosystem services we expect agricultural soils to deliver. Nutrient cycling incorporates the reuse of agricultural, industrial and municipal organic residues that, misleadingly, are often referred to as 'wastes'

The Scope of Ecology Boundless Biolog

(iv) Phage ecosystem ecology considers the phage impact on energy flow and nutrient cycling within ecosystems. Phage, for example, can disrupt the soil bacteria responsible for nitrogen cycling. Phage Temperance Versus Virulence Population and organismal ecologies are concerned with th Ecology is a multidisciplinary field encompassing the biological, physical and social in the nature. It is the study of the interactions between organisms and their environment. It is concerned with relationships, distributions, abundance, scarcity, competition and cooperation among organisms in an • Energy Flow and Nutrient Cycle.

What is Ecosystem - Javatpoin

Each ecosystem has characteristic patterns of energy flow and chemical cycling that can affect the whole biosphere. For example, the productive pastures of phytoplankton in the oceans may help moderate the greenhouse effect by consuming massive quantities of CO2 for photosynthesis and for building bicarbonate shells performs (e.g. energy flow, nutrient cycling, structural support) to other ecological goods and services that are currently discussed within the ecological service literature (e.g. provisioning, regulating, cultural, and supporting services). For example, the ecological function of surface water storage in a riverine wetlands can be directl Measurements of ecosystem homeostasis such as nutrient cycling processes have been shown to be good ecosystem level monitors. The rate of dissolved nutrient loss from ecosystems has been conclusively shown to increase as a function of chemical contamination until a new equilibrium is reached, the pollutant input has become negligible, or until.

Which level of ecology considers energy flow and chemical

Connection for AP ® Courses. As we learned in Energy Flow through Ecosystems, energy takes a one-way path (flows directionally) through the trophic levels in an ecosystem. However, the matter that comprises living organisms is conserved and recycled through what are referred to as biogeochemical cycles. The six most common elements associated. ECOSYSTEM ECOLOGY: The Big Picture. You've probably seen pictures of Food Webs.The levels of the web--which organisms eat which one's lower on the chain--are called TROPHIC (from the Greek troph, meaning food or nourishment) LEVELS.. The Food Web reflects the flow of ENERGY and NUTRIENTS through ecosystems via the trophic levels In any given ecosystem, energy is passed from source to producers to consumers in a process called energy flow. Most of the energy is lost back to the environment during each stage of passage, with only a small part (10% average) being retained among the next feeding level. Energy cannot be recycled in an ecosystem - People and food in ecosystem-function terms. Trophic structure and nutrient cycling: global carbon cycle and energy flow - Defining motivating questions: what do you think about food and agriculture, and why do you think it? II

All ecosystem components are connected by the flow of energy and cycling of nutrients. When an animal - including humans - eats, it breaks the chemical bonds of its food and releases useful energy within its cells. This energy is then used for a variety of functions, including growth, movement, cell membrane function, and reproduction Ecosystem ecology involves the study of energy and material flow through systems, including both the biotic (animals, plants, microbes) and abiotic (soil, water, atmosphere) components. Topics include the major elemental cycles (carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous), patterns of energy flow, and the controls of these fluxes for different ecosystems The analysis of material and energy flow through distributed metabolic networks of microbes could lead to a predictive understanding of ecosystems (Roling et al., 2007). However, it requires a deeper and richer analysis than is presently available. For example, models of terrestrial carbon cycling posi Species effects on nutrient cycling. A fundamental question in ecology is the role of species in influencing ecosystem processes. This question has become increasingly important given the loss of species, increases in non-indigenous species, and predicted shifts in the distribution and abundance of species owing to global climate change